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53 Cards in this Set

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Describe daydreaming.
Letting your thoughts wander to another subject while you're doing another task
What happens when the circadian rhythm of adults is disturbed?
Microsleeps occur, unable to concentrate or perform simple tasks, sleep deprivation, which then leads to general discomfort and emotional symptoms such as irritability and even depression
What are sleep spindles, and which stage of sleep do sleep spindles occur?
Sleep spindles are bursts of activity lasting only a second or two, and they occur during sleep stage N2.
What is the deepest stage of sleep?
The deepest stage is in N3. This is when the delta waves (slowest and largest waves) make their appearance.
Explain "paradoxical sleep" & when it happens
Paradoxical sleep is another name for REM sleep. It occurs during sleep stage R. 90% of dreams happen in REM sleep and they tend to be more vivid, detailed, and longer and more bizarre than the dreams of NREM sleep. The voluntary muscles are paralyzed during REM sleep (known as sleep paralysis). This is why you sometimes have a dream in which you are trying to run or move but can't.
Where is our biological clock physically located?
The sleep-wake cycle is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain.
When does sleepwalking occur?
Deep non-REM stages of sleep
What is sleep apnea?
Sleep apnea is a condition that occurs when a person stops breathing for 10 seconds or more. When the breathing stops, there will be a sudden silence, followed shortly by a gasping sound as the person struggles to get air. Some people benefit from wearing a nasal opening device, losing weight, or they sleep with a device that delivers a continuous stream of air under mild pressure.
What did Freud believe dreams represent?
He believed that conflicts, events and desires of the past would be represented in a symbolic form in the dreams.
What is the difference between nightmares and night terrors?
A nightmare occurs during REM sleep, so the person is unable to move the voluntary muscles. People normally remember tier nightmares the next morning. Night terrors occur in the deep non-REM sleep, so they are able to thrash around and scream. People who have night terrors normally do not remember that they had one.
What are the differences between addiction, tolerance and dependency?
A person as a physical dependence on a drug when the body becomes unable to function normally without it (this is the same thing as addiction). A drug tolerance is as the person continues to use the drug, larger and larger doses are needed to achieve the same initial effects.
What are the risk factors for alcoholism?
Alcoholism can cause liver disease, increase the risk of loss of bone density (osteoporosis), and heart disease, psychiatric disorders and depression and anxiety disorders.
What is marijuana and it's effects?
Weed is a common hallucinogenic drug that comes from a hemp plant. It produces a feeling of well-being, mild intoxication, and mild sensory distortions or hallucinations. It can create a powerful PSYCHOLOGICAL dependency.
What type of person can easily be hypnotized?
They can be hypnotized easily if they... Focus on what's being said, feel relaxed and slightly tired, accept suggestions easily, and use a vivid imagination. People have to be willing to be hypnotized. A test of hypnotic susceptibility, or the degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject, often makes use of a series of ordered questions.
What are the effects of opiates (aka narcotics)?
Opiates, or narcotics, are a type of depressant that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins. They are all very addictive.
What is a stimulant drug?
Stimulants are a class of drugs that "speed up" the nervous system - the heart may beat faster or the brain may work faster if under the influence of a stimulant.
What is the most dangerous and addictive stimulant in use leading to the single largest avoidable cause of death in our society today?
Every year, nearly 430,000 US people die from illnesses related to smoking.
Who is Ivan Pavlov?
He was a Russian physiologist (a person who studies the workings of the body) who led the study of the basic principles of a particular kind of learning. He created the salivating dogs experiement.
What is the unconditioned stimulus?
The stimulus that leads to an involuntary response (the food is the unconditioned stimulus for the dogs)
What is the unconditioned response?
The automatic, involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus
What is the Conditioned stimulus?
A previously un-acting stimulus (such as seeing the dog dish) begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response. It shows that learning has occurred.
What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is the kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior. Operant is voluntary behavior.
Describe "shaping".
Shaping is a process in operant conditioning that takes small steps toward some ultimate goal. The steps are reinforced until the goal itself is reached. (ie, teaching a dog to jump through a hoop step by step is shaping)
What are positive and negative reinforcers and how do they affect behavior?
A positive reinforcement is a reinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable consequence, such as a reward or a pat on the back.

Negative reinforcement is the removal or escape from something unpleasant that will increase the likelihood of that response being repeated.
What is the difference between negative reinforcers and punishment?
Punishment is the OPPOSITE of reinforcement; punishment WEAKENS responses, whereas reinforcement STRENGTHENS responses. Punishment can be by application (such as spanking, scolding or other unpleasant stimulus), or punishment by removal (the removal of something pleasurable or desires after the bad behavior occurs).
What is generalization in regards to classical conditioning?
The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is called stimulus generalization. You generalize the similar stimulants. (ie, if a person is afraid of the dentist and reacts with anxiety to the sound of a dentist's drill, they might react with some anxiety when they hear a similar-sounding machine, such as a coffee grinder)
What is extinction in regard to classical conditioning?
Extinction is a process where the conditioned stimulus was repeatedly presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus; this lead to the conditioned response to "die out" and sop occurring when brought to the attention of the conditioned stimulus.
What is the recency effect?
People tend to start to ramble off the "freshest" info (the stuff they just heard) if they are asked to recall a list of something. Normally the first items that were said are moreso correct than the rest of the items in the middle of the list
What is maintenance rehearsal?
When people say something over and over again in their heads so they remember it longer
What is elaborative rehearsal?
A way of transferring info from short term memory into long term memory by making that info meaningful in some way (like adding a joke or another term you already know to the unknown word).
What's the difference between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal?
Maintenance rehearsal isn't as successful as elaborative rehearsal when it comes down to long-term history
What is "chunking"?
You cut down big masses of info into smaller "chunks" (like a phone number - 419-306-2109)
What are retrieval cues?
A retrieval cue is a stimulus for remembering. The more cues stored with a piece if info, the easier the retrieval of that info will be.
What is the role of the hippocampus in memory?
The hippocampus is a part of the limbic system, and it is a part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories
What is procedural memory?
The long term memory that helps you remember how to do things, like walking, riding a bike, or tying your shoes.
What is semantic memory?
One type of declarative memory (declarative memory is all the thifs people can know, like 2+2=4 and what they are for breakfast) that is general knowledge that anyone ha the ability to know. Most of this info is learned in school (semantic refers to meaning).
What is Episodic memory?
Episodic memory is the other type of declarative memory that is PERSONAL knowledge that each person has of their personal history, a kind of autobiographical memory. Memories if what has happened to people each day, birthdays, and childhood vents are called episodic memories because they represent EPISODES from their lives.
What is discrimination in regard to classical conditioning?
Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways. (ie, although the sound of a coffee grinder might produce a little anxiety in the dental-drill-hating person, after a few uses that sound will no longer produce anxiety because it isn't associated with dental pain.
What are the two types of interferences that results in forgetting?
Proactive interference is the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the learning (and retrieval) of new material.

Retroactive interference is the opposite - this is when newer info interferes with the retrieval of older info.
What are the characteristics of short-term memory?
It an incoming sensory message is important enough to enter consciousness, that message will move from sensory memory to the next stage, called short term memory. Short term memories last up to 30 seconds or more. The capacity of STM is 5 to 9 bits of info.
What are the characteristics of long-term memory?
Long term memory is the system into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently. Just because memories are available doesn't mean they are accessible. Long term doesn't mean that all memories are stored forever.
What are flashbulb memories?
Memories that contain emotionally charged events
What is state-dependent learning?
Memories formed during a particular physiological state that will be easier to remember while in a similar state
What is the tip-of-the-tongue phonemenon?
People may be able to say how long the word or name the letters that start or end the word but can't retrieve the sound or the spelling of the word to allow it to be fully retrieved
What is eidetic imagery?
THe ability to access a visual sensory memory over a long period of time (also known as a photographic memory).
What is a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement?
A reinforcer is received AFTER a certain, fixed interval of time has passed. A scheduled test would be an example of a fixed interval.
What is variable interval schedule of reinforcement?
The interval of time after exhibit the individual must respond in order to receive a reinforce changes from time to the next. Unpredictable pop quizzes are a good example of variable interval.
What is a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement?
The number of responses required to receive each reinforce will always be the same number. Any worker that has to finish a certain number of items before pay is a fixed ratio.
What is a variable ratio schedules of reinforcement?
The number of responses hangs from one trial to the next. People using slot machines are an example of a variable ratio; they don't stop trying again and again in case the "next one" might be the jackpot
What is spontaneous recovery?
The recurrence of a conditioned response after extinction.
Explain the social cognitive learning theory.
The social cognitive learning theory focuses on the roles of cognition, or thought processes, on learning.
How was aggression affected in children who saw an adult model punished vs. rewarded for hitting an inflated doll in Bandura's Bobo Doll Study?
The children who saw the model beat up the doll and be rewarded after also beat up the doll when they were with it. The children who saw the model beat up the doll but get punished after did not beat up the doll until they were offered a reward.
Define memory.
Memory is an active system that receives info from the senses, puts that info into usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, an then retrieves the info from storage