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Agentic Perspective, Three Control System, Three Effects of Model, Sources of Reinforcement in Imitation, 4 Critical Steps to Observational Learning, Social Cognitive Theory

Bandura

Social Cognitive Theory

Exploring the things that people learn from each other and significant books
The Product of Social Learning
knowledge of what is socially acceptable

Socialization

lengthy process of learning social morals, customs, values, habits, and beliefs


Observational Learning

Imitation

Models

any representation of a pattern for behaving (pics,books characters, oral or written instructions)

How can Socially accepted behaviors vary?

Among Cultures, and For Different Ages and Sexes

What is one of the most important tasks of child rearing?

Socializing youngsters

4 Critical Steps to Observational Learning

1. Attentional Process




2. Retentional Processes




3. Motor Reproduction Processes




4. Motivational Processes

Attentional Process (4 Critical Steps to Observational Learning)

— ~Modelling Stimuli: Distinctiveness, Affective valence, complexity, Prevalence, Functionalvalue.



~Observer Characteristics: sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, Past reinforcement

Retentional Process (4 Critical Steps to Observational Learning)

— Symbolic Coding, — Cognitive organization, —Motor rehearsal

Motor Reproduction Process (4 Critical Steps to Observational Learning)


— Physical capabilities, — Availability of component responses, — Self-observation of reproductions, — Accuracy feedback


Motivational Processes (4 Critical Steps to Observational Learning)

— Externalreinforcement, — Vicarious reinforcement, — Self-reinforcementn>

Sources of Reinforcement in Imitation

1. Direct Reinforcement




2. Vicarious Reinforcement

Direct Reinforcement


(Sources of Reinforcement in Imitation)

— Reinforceddirectly by the model



Actualconsequence of the imitated behavior


Vicarious Reinforcement (Sources of Reinforcement in Imitation)




— The imitator is not actually reinforced directly



Simply being imitated may be reinforcing


Three Effects of Model

1. The Modeling Effect




2. The Inhibitory/Disinhibitory Effect




3. The Eliciting Effect

The Modeling Effect

the acquisition of novel responses

he Inhibitory/Disinhibitory Effect

the suppression of previously learned behavior andthe re-involvement in previously inhibited behavior due to modeling.

The Eliciting Effect

the model’s behavior encourages similar behavior inthe observer

Bandura's Three Control System are?

1. Stimulus Control




2. Outcome Control




3. Symbolic Control

What is Stimulus Control?

Includesreflexes and behavior learned through behavior being associated withantecedents


What is Outcome Control?

Behaviorsunder the control of their consequences rather than their antecedents

What is Symbolic Control?

Behaviors influenced by “mediation” or internalprocesses


What is Agentic Perspective?


People are agents of their ownactions

(Agentic Perspective) Three main features of human agency: ?

1. Intentionality




2. Forethought




3. Self-Reactiveness and Self-Reflection

What are:




Personal Efficacy




Collective Efficacy

— Our judgments of self-efficacy are important determiners of what we do and don’t do




— Four main sources of influence: enactive, vicarious, precursory, arousal.

Four main sources of influence in Collective Efficacy Is?

1. Enactive




2. Vicarious




3. Precursory




4. Arousal.

What are the Motivation Drive Theories?

Hull's --> Drive Reduction Theory




Miller's --> Learned Drives (fear)

Hull — Drive reduction theory is ?

Basedon a few basic drives (hunger, thirst, sex, pain)


MillerLearned drives (fear) are?


o Drive— Satisfied by new experience (monkey opens window)





o Drive— Satisfied by activity (running wheels in animal cage)





o Drive— Contact comfort (monkeys surrogate mothers)


What are the Arousal theories and law?

The Yerkes — Dodson Law




Hebb’s Arousal Theory



What is theThe Yerkes — Dodson Law?

The most effect performance occurs at anintermediate level of arousal

What is Hebb’s Arousal Theory?

— Theoptimal level of arousal differs for different tasks



— Stimulihave two important functions



o TheCue Function



o The ArousalFunction



Needfor Stimulation


Berlyne and Madsen is associated with what theory?

Optimal Arousal

Optimal Arousal (Berlyne and Madsen)

May not be a reduction in the strengthof a drive, but rather, a change toward some desired level


(Arousal) What do people often seek?

People often seek more stimulationinstead of less (Roller coasters, extreme sports, etc)

High Stimulation in Arousal is?

More difficult to assess — therefore, you must know thedeterminants of present levels and optimal levels




Level of arousal is an increasing function of the intensity, complexity, and noveltyof the situation


In Arousal Orienting Reflex is?

The general arousal produced by a stimulus

Sheffield is associated with what theory?

Responses of Reinforcers

Responses of Reinforcers are?

Reinforcement depends not upon whathappens to an individual, but what one does




~Foodis not reinforcing unless one eats it



— ~Wateris not reinforcing unless one drinks it



— ~ Amaze is not reinforcing unless one explores it


In Responses of ReinforcersInstrumental Responses is?

The responses that lead to rewards and are reinforced by those rewards

In Responses of Reinforcers Consummatory Responses is?

Responses that are directed more specially to certain rewards rather than others

Premack's Principle is?

Of any two responses, the one thatoccurs more often when both are available can reinforce the one that occursless often, but not vice versa





— Therefore,any preferred response can serve as reinforce for any other response


Child being rewarded to play briefly on the playground for sitting a long period of time in class




However, the same child who gave his last effort in activity outside will be reinforce with quietly sitting and resting for a brief period




This is an example of...?

Premack's Principle

Allison is associated with what theory?

Behavior Regulation & Bliss Point

In Behavioral Regulation Bliss Point is?

— The time an individual will freelychoose to engage in an activity



— Thehigher the bliss point, the more the person likes or values that activity




— It’spossible to maintain bliss points on every possible activity

Weiner is associated with what theory?

Cybernetics

Cybernetics is the...?

Control theory or negative feedbackloops



— —Involvesadjustments in a system to keep it at a steady state


Reinforcement is a change in acontrolled quantity bringing it closer to its set apart.











— Involvesadjustments in a system to keep it at a steady state



o Primary example — thermostat


§ Controlled quantity — temperature



§ Set point — desired room temperature



§ Feedback — information about deviations from the set point


This is an example of?

Cybernetics

Opponent – Process Theory (Solomon)


Hedonic Theoryaddresses pleasure and displeasure


Solomon is associated with what theory?

Opponent – Process Theory (Solomon)



For every feeling there is an opposite (but not exactly equal) reaction



Examples:Dog level of agitation before and after shocks. Humans level of excitementbefore and after skydiving



t This is an example of?



Opponent – Process Theory (Solomon)


Brain Injury is?

amnesia — a total or partial impairment of memory


Fading Theory is?

— recalling ideas and abstractions, gist of the story, NOT DETAILS.



Happens when recalled memory is often distorted


Repression Theory is?

People unconsciously forget experiences that are anxiety provoking or traumatic


Interference Theory is?



— New learning can interfere with recall of old learning (Retroactive Interference)



Old learning can interfere with the recall of new learning (Proactive Interference)


Retrieval – Cue Theory is?

an inability to recall, that is due to the unavailability of appropriate cues for recall

Aids to Learning and Remembering are?



Rehearsal — to repeat





Elaboration — to extend or add to





Organization — to arrange according to some system


What are the Three Component Model of Memory


Sensory Memory




Short Term (Working) Memory





Long Term Memory

Sensory Memory is?

the immediate, unconscious effects of stimulus



Short Term (Working) Memory is?

the awareness and recall of items that will no longer be available as soon as the individual stops rehearsing them

Long Term Memory is?
more stable and longer lasting remembrances

What are the Types of Long Term Memory?


Explicit (Declarative)



Two kinds


o Semantic


o Episodic



Implicit (Non-declarative)

Explicit (Declarative) in Long Term Memory is?


— items that can readily be put into words (i.e. people’s names, addresses, telephone numbers)



Two kinds


o Semantic — knowledge ofprinciples, laws and facts



o Episodic — specificmemories tied to a place and time


Implicit (Non-declarative) in Long Term Memory is?
— cannot be readily recalled and put into words(i.e. how to ride a bike, hitting a home run, trick in ice skating.)
David Ausubel is associated with what theory?
Assimilation Theory
Assimilation Theory is?

~mustlearning involves assimilating new experience into one’s existing cognitivestructure




Teachers teaching material in aeasily assimilated way




Advance organizers — provides anoverview of where the new material fits in the leaners whole cognitive structure


Robert Gagne is associated with what theory?


Structure of Learning

Structure of Learning is the...?


analyzing complex tasks into hierarchal structure, break into subcomponents

Martin Seligman


is associated with what theory?
Explanatory Styles

Explanatory Styles is?

— concerned with how we interpret our failures and other troubles




Attributed to ourselves (internal) or to others (external)



— Attributed broadly (global) or narrowly (specific)



— Attributed factors that change (unstable) or to factors that tend to stay the same (stable)



— Interpretations of fear/expectations



— Pessimistic (internal, global, stable, sicker)



— Optimistic (external, specific, unstable, healthier)

Robert Gagne made what test?

Positive Psychology Test

What did Donald Meichenbaum develope?


developed the use of self-instruction as a guide for behavior





Childwith ADHD use less

Joseph Wolpe is associated with what theory?


Thought Stopping

Thought Stopping is?


Think “Stop that"



— Useful for people who tend toruminate and obsess


Teacheshow to relax in the presence of adverse stimulation





CBT — Cognitive Psychology





Joseph Wolpe — Though Stopping combines what two theories


Combine Guthrie’s Incompatible Stimulate (the


relaxation) and his Thresholds (gradual going up the hierarchy)

Donal Meichenbaum combines what two theories?

CombinesSkinner’s Shaping and Fading with Guthrie’s ideas on Thresholds.Added cognitive issues



Talkself through complex task


Robert Rescorala is associated with what theory?


Cognitive Interpretations

What are Cognitive Interpretations?


TheCS (Conditioned Stimulus) is a warning signal to the US (UnconditionedStimulus)



Contingency Relationship — environment