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34 Cards in this Set

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Development Psychology
The specialized study of how an individuals physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development occur in sequential interrelated stages throughout the life cycle.
Object Permanence
A child's realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it.
Representational Thought
The intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind.
The principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed.
A young child's inability to understand another person's perspective.
Internally programmed growth
Telegraphic Speech
Children leave out words or use wrong verb tenses but still get the message across. Example: "where my apple?"
Mental representations of the world
A process where we try to fit a new object/concept in a preexisting schema. Example: All 4 legged animals -> Dog
A process where we changed our schema to fit the characteristics of a object/concept. Example: Bottle -> Cup
Authoritarian Families
The parent rules; Kids have no choice
Democratic/Authoritative Families
Kids and parents set boundaries together and get a voice; Parents still have final say
Permissive/Laissez-Faire Families
Kids have final say; Parents avoid conflict
Uninvolved Parents
Parents couldn't care less about kids existence; Parents not involved in life
Sensorimotor (Birth - 2 years)
Behavior consists of simple motor, responses to sensory stimuli; Lacks concept of object permanence
Preoperational (2 - 7 years)
Lacks operations (reverse mental processes); Exhibits egocentric thinking; Lacks concept of conservation; Uses symbols (such as words or mental images) to solve simple problems or to talk about things that are not present
Concrete Operations (7 - 11 years)
Begins to understand concept of conservation; Still has trouble with abstract ideas; Classification abilities improve; Masters concept of conservation
Formal Operations (11 years - onward)
Understands abstract ideas and hypothetical situations; Capable of logical and deductive reasoning
Inherited tendencies/responses displayed by newborn animals when encountering new stimuli. For example, ducks thinking the first thing that moves is their mother.
Oedipus Complex
Little boys tend to love their mother and hate their father because they feel he's competition to her love.
Critical Period
The stage/period in development when skills/abilities are easily learned.
Oral Stage (Birth - 18 months)
During this stage a child is focused on oral pleasure (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an oral fixation or oral personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. Example: nail biting, chewing on straws, over eating, smoking, drinking alcohol
Anal Stage (18 months - 3 years)
A child's focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces. Through society's pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive). On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganized (anal expulsive)
Phallic Stage (3 years - 6 years)
The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage a boy develops an unconscious sexual desire for their mother and becomes rivals with their father for their mothers affection. During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as castrating them. Eventually the child decides they can't beat their father so they join them and pick up his characteristics. A fixation at this stage could result in sexual deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and weak, confused sexual identity.
Latency Stage (6 years - Puberty)
During this stage sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers.
Genital Stage (Puberty on)
The final stage; Begins at start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through lessons from previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure being the genitals.
Trust vs. Mistrust (early infancy)
Is my world predictable and supportive?
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (1 - 3 years)
Can I do things myself or must I rely on others?
Initiative vs. Guild (3 - 6 years)
Am I good or bad?
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 - 12 years)
Am I successful or worthless?
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adults / High School)
Shall I share my life with someone or live alone
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adult)
Will I succeed in life?
Egointegrity vs. Despair (Older Adult)
Have I lived a full life?
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Unconscious, Dreams, Free word association