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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Discovered classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
formulated the Law of Effect (the consequence, or effect, of a response determines whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future is strengthened or weakened
Edward Thorndike
a neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response
conditioned stimulus
elicits an unconditioned response without learning
unconditioned stimulus
learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus
conditioned response
reponse elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without learning
unconditioned response
weakening and eventual disappearance of the CR as a result of repeated presentation of the CS without the US
extinction
reappearance of an extinguished CR when organism is exposed to the CS following a rest period
Spontaneous recovery
tendency to make a CR to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS
Generalization
occurs when conditioned stimului are linked to form a series of signals
higher order conditioning
learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that that CR occurs only to the original CS but not to the similar stimuli
discrimination
learning through consequences
operant conditioning
learning through association of stimuli
classical conditioning
the removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a response
punishment
a pleasant or desirable consequence that increases the probability that a response will be repeated
positive reinforcement
termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated
negative reinforcement
reinforcer is given after first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed
fixed interval schedule
reinforcer is given after varying number of non reinforced responses
variable ratio schedule
reinforcer given after a fixed number of correct, nonreinforced responses
fixed ratio schedule
reinforcer is given after first correct response following a varying period of time
variable interval schedule
a passive resignation to aversive conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to inescapable or unavoidable aversive events
learned helplessness
a program that motivates socially desirable behavior by reinforcing it with tokens
token economy
people learn through others' behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors; explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences
social learning theory (albert bandura)
bobo doll experiment; many behaviors acquired through observational learning
albert bandura
children learned to copy the aggression by observing adult models act aggressively toward bobo dolls
bobo doll experiment
the process of keeping or maintaining information in memory
storage
a physiological change in the brain that allows encoded information to be stored in memory
consolidation
a memory task in which a person must produce required information by searching memory
recall
the process of keeping or maintaining information in memory
storage
a memory task in which a person must simply identify material as familiar or as having been encountered before
recognition
a physiological change in the brain that allows encoded information to be stored in memory
consolidation
the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
encoding
a memory task in which a person must produce required information by searching memory
recall
the process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
retrieval
a memory task in which a person must simply identify material as familiar or as having been encountered before
recognition
the component of the memory system that holds about seven (5-9items) for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; also called working memory
short term memory
the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
encoding
the subsystem within long term memory that stores facts, information, and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and then declared or stated; explicit memory
declarative memory
the process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
retrieval
the memory system that holds information from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about two seconds
sensory memory
the component of the memory system that holds about seven (5-9items) for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; also called working memory
short term memory
a memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units, which are easier to remember
chunking
the subsystem within long term memory that stores facts, information, and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and then declared or stated; explicit memory
declarative memory
the memory system that holds information from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about two seconds
sensory memory
a memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units, which are easier to remember
chunking
the act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short term memory
rehearsal
the memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a person's permanent or relatively permanent memories
long term memory
remembering something without being aware that you are remembering it
implicit memory
the type of declarative memory that records events as they have been subjectively experienced
episodic memory
the finding that, for information learned in a sequence, recall is better for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items in the sequence
serial position effect
a loss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness
retrograde amnesia
process in which traumatic memories are buried in the unconscious
repression
recollection of an event, or the details of an event, that did not occur
false memories
the inability to form long term memories formed before the trauma are usually intact and short term memory is unaffected
anterograde amnesia
previous memorized items interfering with items one is currently to trying to memorize
proactive interference
the experience of knowing that a particular piece of information has been learned but being unable to retrieve it
tip of the tongue phenomena
learning in one long practice session without rest periods
massed practice
practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error
overlearning