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62 Cards in this Set

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Theoretical Framework
Systematic way of organising and explaining observations. Hypothesis that flows from the theory or from an important question.
Standardised Procedure
Procedure that is the same for all participants except where variation is introduced to test a hypothesis.
Generalisability
Sample that is representative of the population. Procedure that is sensible and relevant to circumstances outside the laboratory
Objective Measurement
Measures that are reliable (produce consistent results). Measures that are valid (that assess the dimensions they purport to assess)
Variables
are phenomena that differ or change across circumstances or individuals; they can be either continuous or categorical.
Internal Validity
A valid design
External Validity
Applicability to situations outside the laboratory.
Experimental Research Methods
Manipulation of variables to assess cause and effect.
Advantages - Demonstrates casual relationships. Replicability: study can be repeated to see if the same findings emerge. Maximises control over relevant variables.
Potential Limitations: Generalisability outside the laboratory. Some complex phenomena cannot be readily tested using pure experimental methods.
Case Study
In-depth observation of a small number of cases.
A- Describes psychological processes as they occur in individual cases. Allows study of complex phenomena not easily reproduced experimentally. Provides data that can be useful in framing hypotheses.
PL: Generalisability to the population. Replicability: study may not be repeatable. Researcher bias. Cannot establish causation.
Naturalistic Observation
In-depth observation of a phenomenon as it occurs in nature.
A- Reveals phenomena as they exists outside the laboratory. Allows study of complex phenomena not easily reproduced.
PL: Observer effects: the presence of an observer may alter the behaviour of the participants.
Survey Research
Asking people questions about their attitudes, behaviour etc.
A: Reveals attitudes or self-reported behaviours of a large sample of individuals. Allow quantification of attitudes or behaviours.
PL: Self-report bias: people may not be able to report honestlyor accurately. Cannot establish causation.
Correlational
Examines the extent to which two or more variables are related and can be used to predict one another.
A: Reveals relationships among variables as they exist outside the laboratory. Allows quantification of relationships among variables.
PL: Cannot establish causation.
Steps to conducting as experiment
Step 1; Framing a hypothesis - Predicting the relationships among two or more variables.
Step 2; Operationalising variables - Converting abstract concepts into testable form.
Step 3; Developing a standardised procedure - Setting up experimental and control conditions. Attending to demand characteristics, attending to researcher bias.
Step 4; Selecting and assigning participants - Randomly assigning participants to different conditions.
Step 5; Applying statistical techniques to the data - Describing the data and determining the likelihood that differences between the conditions reflect causality or chance.
Step 6; Drawing Conclusions - Evaluating whether or not the data support the hypothesis, suggesting future studies to address limitations and new questions raised by the study.
Neurons
Nerve Cells
Dendrites
Branch-like extensions of the neuron
Nucleus
The brain of the operation
Axon
A long extension from the cell body that transmits information to other neurons.
Sensory Neurons
Carries sensory information from sensory receptors to the central nervous system.
Motor Neurons
Transmits commands from the brain to the glands and muscles of the body
Communication from one neuron to another
1. Resting State - Na+ cannot enter, or is actively pumped out of, the neuron; the cell is negatively charged.
2. Depolarisation - Na+ enters dendrites and cell body, making the cell less negatively charged.
3. Graded Potential - Change in cell voltage is passed down dendrites and cell body.
4. Action Potential - If the change in axon voltage surpasses a threshold, the axon suddenly lets in a surge of NA+
5. Neurotransmitter release - The action potential causes terminal buttons to release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.
6. Chemical message transmitted - Depending on the facilitating or inhibitory nature of the neurotransmitter released, the voltage of the cell membrane receiving the message becomes depolarised or hyperpolarised, and the process repeats.
Glutamate
Excitation of neurons throughout the nervous system
GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Inhibition of neurons in the brain
Dopamine
Emotional arousal, pleasure and reward; voluntary movement; attention.
Serotonin
Sleep and emotional arousal; aggression; pain regulation; mood regulation
Acetylcholine
Learning and Memory
Endorphins and Enkephalins
Pain relief and elevation of mood.
Endocrine System
A collection of glands that control various bodily functions through the secretion of hormones.
Pituitary Gland
An oval structure in the brain that is about the size of a pea, often described as the 'master gland'. because many of the hormones it releases stimulate and regulate the other glands. The pituitary gland is connected more directly to the central nervous system than any of the other endoctrine glands.
Thyroid Gland
Located in the neck, releases hormones that control growth and metabolism. The thyroid gland also affects energy levels and mood
Adrenal Gland
Located above the kidneys. These glands secrete adrenalin and other hormones during emergencies. Another endocrine gland, the pancreas, is located near the stomach and produces hormones that control blood-sugar level.
Gonads
Endocrine glands that influence sexual development and behaviour. The gonads, or testes, are located in the testicles. The most important hormone they produce is testosterone.
Estrogens
Hormones produced by the female gonads (ovaries).
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain and spinal chord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Consists of neurons that convey messages to and from the central nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
Transmits sensory information to the central nervous system and carries out its motor commands.
Autonomic Nervous System
Conveys information to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life processes such as digestion and respiration.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Typically activated in responses to threats. Its job is to ready the body for fight or flight.
The hindbrain
Directly above the spinal cord in humans. The medulla oblongata, the cerabellum,and parts of the reticular formation.
Pons
Involved with respiration , movement, walking, sleep and dreaming.
Cerebellum
Coordinates the fine muscle movement, balance, and some perception and cognition.
Medulla
Responsible for breathing, heartbeat, and other vital life functions.
Midbrain
Consists of the tectum and tegmentum.
Tectum
Includes structures involved in vision and hearing.
Tegmentum
Includes parts of the reticular formation and other neural structures, serves a variety of functions, many related to movement.
Forebrain
Involved in complex sensory, emotional, cognitive and behaviour processes.
Hypothalamus
Situated in the front of the midbrain. Helps to regulate behaviours ranging from eating and sleeping to sexual activity and emotional experience.
Thalamus
Set of nuclei located over above the hypothalamus. Processes sensory information as it arrives and transmits this information to higher brain centres.
Limbic System
Set of structures with diverse functions involving emotion, motivation, learning, and memory. The lymbic system includes the septal area, the amygdala, and the hippocampus.
Amygdala
Almond shaped structure involved in many emotional processes, especially learning and remembering emotionally significant events. Also regulates fear response.
Hippocampus
Particularly important for storing new information in memory so that the person can later consciously remember it.
The Basal Ganglia
Set of structures, including the putamen and caudate nucleus located near the thalamus and hypothalamus that are involved in a wide array of functions, particularly movement and judgements that require minimal conscious thought.
Cerebral Cortex
Consists of a 3mm thick layer of densely packed interneurons. Gray and interwoven. Performs three functions- it allows the flexible construction of of sequences of voluntary movements involved in activities such as changing a tyre or playing a piano.
Second- Permits subtle discrimination among among complex sensory patterns.
Third- Make possible symbolic thinking.
Primary areas
Process raw sensory information or initiate movement.
Association areas
Involved in cortex mental processes such as forming perceptions, ideas and plans.
Cerebral Cortex
Two symmetrical halves; separated by longitudinal fissure.
Corpus Callosum
Band of neural fibres that cronnects the right and left hemispheres.
Occipital Lobes
Located in the rear portion of the cortex, they are specialised for vision.
Parietal lobes
Located in front of the occipital lobes. They are involved in several functions, including the sense of touch, detecting movement, in the environment, located objects in space and experiencing one's own body as it moves through space.
Somatosensory Cortex
The primary area of the parietal lobe, it lies directly behind the central fissure, which divides the partietal lobe from the frontal lobe.
Frontal lobes
involved in a number of functions, including movement, attention, planning, social skills, abstract thinking, memory and some aspects of personality.
Temporal lobes
Located on the lower side portions of the cortex, are particularly important in hearing and language, although they have other functions as well.
Wernicke's area
located in the left temporal lobe, is important in language comprehension.