• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomenon
idea that all events (physical, mental, and behavioral) are result of or determined by specific causal factors
tentative and testable statement about the relationship between causes and consequences
Observer bias
error due to personal motives and expectations of the viewer
using uniform consistent procedures in all phases of data collection
operational definition
standardizes meaning within an experiment by defining concept in terms of specific operations or procedures used to measure/determine its presence
independent variable
factor that researcher manipulates; causal part of relationship
dependent variable
what the experiment measures; effect of relationship
behavioral measures
ways to study overt actions & observable /recordable reactions
between-subject designs
different groups of participants are randomly assigned by chance procedures to an experimental condition or to a control condition
case study
focus measures on a single individual or small group
confounding variable
something other than what the experimenter purposely introduces into the research setting that changes the participants behavior & adds confusion to the interpretation of data
control procedures
methods that attempt to hold constant all variables & conditions other than those related to the hypothesis being tested
correlation coefficient (r)
statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between 2 variables
correlational methods
research methodologies that determine to what extent 2 variables, traits, or attributes are related
procedure conducted at the end of an experiment in which the researcher provides the participant with info about the study & makes sure that no one leaves feeling bad
double-blind control
both experimental participants and assistants unaware of which participants get what treatment
expectancy effects
occurs when a researcher/observer subtly communicates to the participants the behaviors he expects to find thereby producing the desired reaction
placebo effect
occurs when participants change their behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation
consistency/dependability of behavioral data resulting from testing or research
representative sample
closely matches the overall characteristics of the population with respect to gender, race, etc.
self-report measures
verbal answers either written or spoken to questions the researcher poses
data accurately measures the psychological variable or quality it is intended to measure
any factor that varies in amount or kind
within-subject design
uses participant as his/her own control; ex: one person before and after.
placebo control
experimental condition in which treatment is not administered
what is the relationship between theories & hypothesis?
theories attempt to explain phenomena. those explanations should generate new hypothesis or testable consequences of theory
what steps researches take to overcome observer bias?
researchers can standardize their procedures and provide operational definitions for their variables
why do researchers use double blind controls?
researchers use double blind controls so that expectations they bring to research setting can't have an impact on the studies' results
what is meant by within subject design?
each participant serves as his or her own control
why does correlation not imply causation?
indicates the extent to which 2 variables are related--it doesn't give any indication of why that relationship exists
why can some measure be reliable but not valid?
if a measure is reliable, it yields comparable value when repeated. but that value might still not accurately reflect the psychological variable that the researcher is after. that's why shoe size would be a reliable but not valid measure of happiness
why is it important for interviewers to establish rapport?
create a context in which people are willing to provide information through self-reports that might be highly personal or sensitive
suppose researcher spends time observing children's behavior at a playground. what kind of measure would that be?
engaged in naturalistic observation of the kids' behavior
what is purpose of informed consent?
participants have opportunity to understand their rights/responsibilities before they choose to engage
what recommendation about research settings do researchers make in regards to use of animals as research participants?
ethical considerations support research in more naturalistic settings.
what percentage of people believed in naturalistic settings?
teachers and students _______ of studies involving physical pain/death of animals
what percentage supported use of animals in undergrad psychology courses?
what fraction of the group felt that work with laboratory animals should be required for undergrad psychology major?
Avoid inference that correlation is causation
Ask that critical terms and key concepts be defined operationally so that their is consensus about their meaning
Consider first how to ______a theory, hypothesis, or belief before seeking ______evidence, which is easy to find when you're looking for ___________.
Always search for ___________explanation to the obvious ones proposed, especially when explanations benefit the __________
recognize how personal _______can distort perceptions of reality
be _________of simple answers to complex questions or single causes and cures for complex effects and problems
question any statement about the ________of some treatment, intervention, or product by finding the __________ basis for the effect
Be _________ yet skeptical. recognize that most conclusions are __________ and not certain; seek new evidence that ___________your uncertainty while keeping yourself _________ to change and revision
open minded/tentative/decreases/open
challenge authority that uses _________ opinion in place of evidence for conclusions and is not _______ to constructive criticism