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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ancedotal Evidence
Personal opinion; nonscientific; unreliable
A fake substance, treatment, or procedure that has no know direct effects
correlation study
a reasearch strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongle related two factors are to each other.
a selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied
a complete set of something - people, nonhuman animals, objects, or events
a fake or false science that makes claims based on little or nor scientific evidence
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or question
operational definiton
a precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured
empirical evidence
verifiable evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation
sematic memory
category of long-term memory that includes memories of general knowledge of facts, names, and concepts (personal encylopedia)
explict (episodic) memory
category of long-term memory that includes memories of particular events (autobiography) ; can be consciously recollected
organizing items into related groups during recall from long-term memory
an organized cluster of information about a particular topic
critical thinking
the active process of minimmizing preconceptions and biases while evaluating evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explainations for research findings or other phenomena
maintenance rehearsal
the mental or verbal reptition of information in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-second duration of short-term memory
progressive deterioration a =nd impairment of memory, reasoning, and other congnitive functions ocurring as the result of a disease or a condition
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
the first western thinker to study psychological topics; wrote about sleep, dreams, the senses, and memory (wrote 'De Anima'); still remains influencial
a branch of biology that studies the fuctions and parts of living organisms, including humans
Wilhem Wundt (German psychologist)
Opened lab in 1879 (said to be the beginning of psychology); the "father of physcology"; emphasized the used of experimental methods - University of Leipzig
reflective technique
simply repeat what the person has said to you (you can paraphrase, but don't add anything or judge)
Environment, learn, language
Innate, genetics, schizophrenia
Ivan Pavlov
studied basic research on learning (Dog and bell guy); pioneered the work of behaviorism
Sigmund Freud
father of psychoanalysis (theory and therapy) :: behavior motivated by unconscious conflicts
John B, Watsonv (first)
B.F. Skinner
school of behaviorism; believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardly observable behaviors that could be measured and verified
S-R stands for....?
stimmulus and response
Jean Piggot
swiss phychologist that studied developement of children and mental processes (perception, language, thinking, problem solving)
Abraham Maslow
studied hiearcy of needs; developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth (humanistic pychology)St
Carl Rogers
studied developement of self; emphasized the conscious experiences; founded humanistic psychology.
Charles Darwin
founder of evolution
empasized studying the most basic components or structures of conscious experiments
emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experience
personality theory and form of psychotherapy that empashize the role pf unconcious factors in personality and behavior
theoretical view point that emphasize the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
humanistic pychology
theoretical viewpoint that emphasize each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
study of the nervous system, especially the brain
positive psychology
study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communities
Scientific Method
a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating empirical evidence, and in drawing conclusions
the mental processes that enable you to retain and retrieve information over time
refers to the process of transforming information into a form that can be entered and retained by the memory system
Short-term Memory
Active working memory. Duration is about 30 seconds, and you can hold about 5 to 9 things within it.
Scensory Memory
registers information from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time.
Long-term Memory
memory that holds long-term information, potentially forever
procedural memory
category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions. (typing, riding a bike...)
Implicit memory
information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but cannot be consciously recollected (Procedural Memory)
process of accessing stored information
tips-of-the-tongue (TOT)
a memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory, but being temportarily unable to retrieve it
a test in long-term memory that involves retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cues
flashbulb memory
recall of very specific images or fetails surrounding a vivid, rare, or signifigant personal event, may or may not be accurate
Hermann Ebbinghaus
German psychologist; studied the forgetting curve by memorizing nonsense, three-syllable words with two consonants and one vowel.
Prospective memory
remembering to do something in the future
decay theory
we forget memories because we don't use them and they fade away over time
Deja Vu is also referred to as...?
source memory; source monitoring
motivated forgetting (conscious)
motivated forgetting (unconscious)
Misinformation Effect
October 2002 sniper attacks; proves that eyewitnesses or not a reliable source. (report different color cars); example of source confusion
Lost in the Mall
example of imagination inflation; they were fed a false memory, and then over time, they started to actually believe it happened and started to recall fake details
severe memory loss
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive disease that destroys the brain's neurons, gradually impairing memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions, resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself; the most common cause of dementia (5 % of 65-74 and about half of people over 85)
William James
studied functionalism (adaptive role of behavior) in psychology
Edward B. titchener
studied structionalism (structures of thought; introspective) in psychology
the process by which we organize and interpret patterns of stimuli from the evironmentc
comparity (?) psychology
studying animals to compare to human mind
human behavior
is observed behavior (can see)
mental process
everything going on inside head (can't see)