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116 Cards in this Set

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Prefrontal Cortex Damage

IQ


Loss of divergent thinking


Failures in response inhibition


Failures to switch out of a pattern - Wisconsin Card


Mimicry of actions


Utilization behaviour


Changes in personality - Phineas Gage



Parietal Lobe General Damage

Impairments in:


Control of movement


Guiding movements to a point in space


Abstract concepts


Directing attention


Overall:


in processing spacial information

Parietal Lobe Left Damage

Agraphia


Acalculia


Right/Left Confusion


Dyslexia


Difficulty in drawing detail



Parietal Lobe Right Damage

Difficulty in recognizing unfamiliar angles of objects


Difficulty in drawing overall shape


Contralateral Neglact



Contralateral Neglect is...

Cannot comprehend a left half to objects


Neglect everything to the left


Test: Line and letter cancellation

Occipital Lobe Damage

Blindsight


Apperceptive Agnosia

What is Blindsight?

The ability to locate an image/object but can't see it

Temporal Lobe - Superior Temporal Gyrus Damage

Auditory Region - Deafness


Wernickes Aphasia

Damage to Middle/Inferior Temporal Gyrus

Achromatopsia


Akinetopsia


Ventral Simultagnosia


Associative Agnosia

Which part of H.M's brain was removed?

Medial temporal lobe

What type of amnesia did H.M have?

Temporally graded retrograde amnesia


Anterograde amnesia

Define retrograde and anterograde amnesia

Retrograde: Prior to an event


Anterograde: Inability to form new memories - After event

What is localisation of function?

Localisation of function is the idea that specific behaviours are localised to specific parts of the brain



Define "Bottom Up" and "Top Down" theory

Bottom up: Brain breaks down info and rebuilds it later


Top down: What your mind expects to see is firstly identified and information is expected to match that



What are some monocular cues?

Interposition


Relative Size


Linear Perspective


Height In Plane


Texture Gradient


Light and Shadow

What is the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory?

Different cones see different colours



What is one problem with the trichromatic theory?

Colour-blindness occurs in pairs


or


You get colour after-effects

What is the opponent process theory

Each cell is programmed to fire at one colour and have an "Opposite" that they switch off at


Blue/Yellow


Red/Green


Black/White

What is Bitemporal hemianopia?


What causes it?

A loss of peripheral vision


Optic chasm damage



What is Achromatopsia?


What causes it?

Absence of colour vision


Damage to V4

What is Akinetopsia?


What causes it?

Can not see motion


Damage to V5



What is Apperceptive Agnosia and what hypothesis is linked to it?

Failure of object recognition due to a failure of visual perception


Peppery Mask Hypothesis

What causes Dorsal Simultagnosia?


What is it?

Damage to the dorsal stream/parietal area


Can recognise objects but not more than one at a time

What is Ventral Simultagnosia

Can recognize objects but not more than one at a time but can see all objects in a scene

What is the route from eye to brain

Eye -> LGN -> V1



How many rods are there in your brain?


How many cones are there in your brain?

Around 120million Rods


Around 7million Cones



Are Rods or Cones primarily active during the day?

Cones. Rods are mainly active at nights

What is neural implementation?

The way in which information enters the brain.


1. Sensory organs absorb energy


2. Energy is transduced into a neural signal


3. The neural signal is sent throughout the brain where further processing takes place



Name different parts of the eye

Outer layer - Cornea


Middle layer - Choroid, Retina


Inner layer - Vitreous humour, iris, pupil, lens

What degree is most peoples blindspot?

18 degrees to one side

What is the Compensatory Reaction Hypothesis?

Where your body "Tilts" the other way in order to prepare for an influx of material eg. Insulin

Which drug did Siegal use on rats to test the Compensatory Reaction Hypothesis?

Heroin

What is spontaneous recovery?

After a period of extinction, CR may reoccur

What is the flooding theory?

Flood participant with stimulus to cause response extinction

What is one example of a reflexive behaviour?

Blinking if air is puffed on your eye

What is habituation?

A decline in tendency to respond to stimuli that have became familiar due to repeated exposure

What was Little Albert scared of after the experiment

White fluffy things

What did Peter Tripp (1959) experience after going 201 hours without sleep?

Mild psychosis


Hallucination


Paranoia

What did Randy Gardener experience after going 264 hours without sleep?

Very little change


Mild impairments in social behaviour





What are the 3 sleeping tests?

EEG - Electroencephalogram - Brain activity


EOG - Electrooculogram - Eye movement


EMG - Electromyogram - Muscle tone

Do we dream more in REM sleep or SWS?

REM. 80% of people in REM remember dreaming compared to only 7% of people in slow wave sleep

___________ memory is increased by SWS and ___________ memory is increased by REM

Declarative memory is increased by SWS and


Procedural memory is increased by REM

In Wade et al's (2002) memory distortion test what event were participants doing in the photograph?

A hot air balloon ride

When is the wake maintenance zone?

7-9pm

How long is the bodyclock cycle?

24.5 - 25 hours

What is semantic knowledge?

General knowledge pertaining to the way the world works and general things that aren't formally memorized

What was Milner's skill task in 1965?

Mirror drawing task

Why do we forget? (3 reasons)

Trace decay - cessation of neural firing (STM)


Weakening synapses (LTM)


Forgetting due to interferance

What speeds were the cars said to have been going when participants were asked about smashed compared to when asked about hit?

41mph: Smashed


34mph: Hit

What is the best form of rehearsal to encode ideas into LTM?

Elaborative rehearsal

What is the method of Loci?

Linking an idea or object to a common routine in order to retrace steps and discover the info again

What did Peterson & Peterson's study find?

Preventing rehearsal produces rapid forgetting

What is chunking?

Splitting information into groups so its easier to deal with

What does the Atkinson and Shiffren 1971 model show?

The primacy and recency effects

What increases synaptic strengths?

Increase in neurotransmitter release


Increase in postsynaptic response


Increase in synaptic connections between neurons

What percentage of synapses is increased in neurons by using an enriched environment

15%

What is the cognitive memory hypothesis?

Enrichment appears to aid in preventing age related cognitive decline

What are the three steps of memory?

Encoding


Storage


Retrieval

Which test was Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) involved in?

Syllable memory

What is the difference between an agonist and antagonist?

Agonist - Increases effects


Antagonist - Reduces effects



What is the human reward system useful for?

Survival of the species

How many alpha motor neurons do we have?

400,000

What are some positive effects of schizophrenia?

Delusions


Hallucinations


Disorganisation

What are some negative effects of schizophrenia?

Poverty of speech and thought

What percentage of the population have Parkinsons disease?

Around 1%

What are some of the neurotransmitters in the brain?

Acetylcholine


Dopamine


Novadrenaline


Glutamate


Seratonin

What is a key chemical that can stop action potentials?

Tetrodotoxin

How many neurons do we have?

Approx 85b

What proportion of gay men owe their sexual orientation to their birth order?

1/7

What is the increased chance of being homosexual for each older brother you have?

1/3

What is the correlation for homosexuality between identical twins and other twins?

0.57 for identical


0.2 for other twins

What strand of DNA is known to be able to turn genes on and off?

Methylation

What percentage of males and females have had serious thoughts about suicide?

Males: 8%


Females: 17:



What is the ratio of attempted suicides for gay and straight males?

Gay: 20%


Straight: 4%

Which synthesis estrogen was given to pregnant women until 1971 that affected sexual orientation?

Diethylstilbestrol

What chemical does stress in pregnancy reduce?

Testosterone

Which muscle tenses when lying?

Those under the chin

How long is a microexpression?

Less than 1/2 a second

At birth infants can determine ________ (it,this) words


from _________ (baby, table) words

Function


Content

What is the learning theory in terms of language?

Language can't be learnt through reward and punishment and therefore must be innate

Poverty increases stress which in turn can increase what?

Child abuse

After a year of foster care what percentage of children experienced health problems?

27%

What is shaken baby syndrome?

The injury or death of a baby due to violent or repeated shaking

Why does shaken baby syndrome occur?

Brain bounces in skull


-Can cause bruising / swelling

What percentage of child abuse deaths does shaken baby syndrome account for?

Around 50%

What proportion of base jumpers die whilst base jumping?

1/60

What percentage of births should be C-Section?

15%

What drug, produced at birth is known as the "Love drug"?

Oxytocin

What does SIDS stand for?

Sudden infant death syndrome

How many deaths does SIDS cause in the US?

Around 0.5/1000

How long after birth do ducklings imprint?

Around 16hours

Which animal did Lorenze get to imprint to him 13-16hours after their hatching?

Geese

How many words did Genie know by the age of 13?

20

How did Genie learn to express herself?

Sign language

What percentage of our IQ do we get from our genes?

40%-70%

What correlation is there for identical twins and homosexuality?

0.57

What is the chance of having schizophrenia in general?

1%

What is the chance of having schizophrenia if your spouse is schizophrenic?

2%

Nephew/Niece Schizophrenic?

3%

Parent/Child Schizophrenic?

10%

Monozygotic twins Schizophrenic?

46%

Dizygotic twins Schizophrenic?

14%

What is the critical period in humans?

18-60 days

What is the critical period for Thalidomide to effect humans?

Day 24-49

What percentage of women drink while pregnant?

10%

Is the dorsal stream where or what focused?

Where

Is the ventral stream where or what focused?

What

What is the PR3 gene looking at

Circadian rhythms

Implicit learning is learning based on...

Information that you pick up on without realising

Explicit learning is...

Conscious based learning

What do you use to think?

Your brain

Occipital Lobe is the what system?

Visual

The Temporal Lobe is the what system?

Auditory

Frontal lobe damage may cause what?

Change in personality

Damage to the prefrontal cortex may cause what?

Damaged IQ and loss of divergent thinking

What is the primary use of the parietal lobe?

Processing spacial information