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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as a result of experience
Associative Learning
A type of learning principle based on the assumption that ideas and experiences reinforce one another and can be linked to enhance the learning process
Classical Conditioning
Learning that occurs when two stimuli-a conditioned stimulus (originally a neutral stimulus) and an unconditioned stimulus-are paired and become associated with each other
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that automatically produces a response without any previous training
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Reaction that is automatically produced when an an unconditioned stimulus is presented
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Neutral stimulus that acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR)
Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus; is similar to the unconditioned stimulus
Occurance of responsesto stimuli that are similar to a CS
Occurence of responses only to a specific CS
A general term for the reduction and elimination fo behaviors; in classical conditioning, extinctionoccurs when repeated presentation of the CS alone leads to a reduction in the strength of the CR; in operant condition, extinction occurs when a behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer
Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time
Operant Conditioning
Learning that occurs when the participant must make a response to produce a change in the environment
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that appears to be clearly dependent upon a specific stimulus and elicited by that stimulus
Operant Behavior
Response that occurs to make a change in the environment
Primary Reinforcer
Stimulus that has innate reingorcing properties
Secondary (Conditioned) Reinforcers
Stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties by being associated with a primary reinforcer
Positive Reinforcement
Event or stimulus presented after the target reponse that increases the liklihood that this reponse will occur again
Negative Reinforcement
Increase in the frequency of a target behavior (reponse) that occurs when a negative reinforcer is removed or teminated; escape condition and avoidance conditioning are examples
The process of using a punisher to decrease response rate
A form of operant conditioning in which a desired response is taught by reinforcement of successive responses that more closely resemble the target response
Successive Approximations
Withold reinforcement until the animal engages in a behavior that comes closer to the desired target response
Schedules of Reinforcement
Preset pattern for delivering reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcement that follows every target response
Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcement that does not follow every target response
Fixed Ratio
When the number of responses required to produce a reinforcer is specified
Variable Ratio
When the number of responses required to produce a reinforcer is not specified
Fixed Interval
A constant period of time must pass before a response is reinforced
Variable Interval
Participants never know the exact time that must pass before a response is reinforced
Insight Learning
Sudden grasp of a concept or the solution to a problem that resultsfrom perceptual restructuring; typically characterized by an immediate change in behavior
Vicarious Conditioning/ Modeling/ Observational Learning
Learning that occurs through watching and imitating the behaviors of others
Memory/ Retention
System of process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use
Remember without cue or clues
Pick out word from group (multiple choice)
How long it takes to remember something the second time then the first time
Sensory Memory
Very brief (0.5 to 1 second for visual stimuli and t to 3 seconds for auditory stimuli but extensive memory for sensory events
Short-Term Memory Use(STM)
Memory stage in which information is held in consciousness for 10 to 30 seconds
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Memory stage that has a very large capaity to store information relatively permanently
State Dependent Learning
Theory stating that when we learn something in a specific physiological state, our recall of that information will be better when we are in the same physiological state
Mnemonic Devices
Procedures for associating new information with previously stored memories
Method of Loci
Use of familiar locations as cues to recall item that have been associated with them
Use of familiar words or names as cues to trall items that have been associated with them
Memorizing a list by grouping them together with similarities
Serial Position Effect
Tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle
In psychodynamic theory, the most basic element of the personality; it is the source of the instincts and operates on the pleasure principle
The element of the mid that operates according to the reality principle and serves to satisfy the id and superego
The element of the mind that incorporates parental and societal standards in what is commonly referred to as the conscience as well as the idealistic ego ideal
Oral Stage
The first stage of psychosexual development in whcih the mouth is the focus of pleasure-seeking activity
Anal Stage
Second stage of psychosexual development, during which the focus of pleasure is the anus and conflict often occurs as efforts are made to toilet-train the child
Phallic Stage
The third stage of psychosexual development, in which the genital organs become the focus of pleasure-seeking behavior
Stage of psychosecual development that extends from about age 6 until the onset of puberty and is characterized byu low levels of sexual interest
Genital Stage
Stage of psychosexual development that begins at puberty and usually leads to normal adult sexual development
Oedipus Complex
Process the occurs during the phallic stage in which a bou wishes to possess his mother suxually and gear retaliation by his father
Pleasure Principle
Continuously drives one to seek pleasure and to avoid pain
Reality Principle
Compels one to defer instant gratification when necessary because of the obstacles of reality
Free Association
A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient is asked to say whatever comes to mind without censoring anything