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113 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Psychology
is the science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare.
Positive psychology
a field of research that focuses on people's positive experiences and characteristics, such as happiness, optimism, and resilience. Study of things that go right.
Biological Psychologists are also called ?
Physiological psychologists
Biological and/or Phsiological psychologists
use high-tech scanning devices and other methods to study how biological processes in the brain and other organs affect, and are affected by, behavior and mental processes.
Developmental Psychologists
describe the changes in behavior and mental processes that occur from birth through old age and try to understand the causes and effects of those changes.
Cognitive Psychologists also some liked to be called ?
Experimental Psycologists
Cognitive Psychologists
study mental abilities such as sensation and perception, learning and memory, thinking, consciousness, intelligence, and creativity.
Engineering Psychology also know as ?
Human factors
Engineering Psychology
A field in which psychologists study human factors in the use of equipment and help designers create better versions of that equipment.
Personality Psychology
study similarities and differences among people.
Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
conduct research on the causes of mental disorders and offer services to help troubled people overcome those disorders.
Community Psychologists
work to obtain psychological services for people in need of help and to prevent psychological disorders by working for changes in social systems.
Health Psychologists
study the effects of behavior on health, as well as the effects that illness has on people's behavior and emotions.
Educational Psychologists
study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and how to apply their results to improving those methods.
School Psychologists
test IQs, diagonose students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement.
Social Psychologists
study the ways that people think about themselves and others and how people influence one another.
Industrial / Organizational Psychologists
study leadership, stress, competition, pay scales, and other factors that affect the efficeincy, productivity, and satisfaction of workers and the organizations that employ them.
Quantitative Psychologists
develop and use statistical tools to analyze vast amounts of data colletcted by their colleagues in many other subfields. (analyze research data)
Sport Psychologists
use visualization and relazation training programs, for example, to help athletes reduce excessive anxiety, focus attention, and make other changes that let them perform at their best.
Forensic Psychologists
assist in jury selection, evaluate defendants' mental competence to stand trial, and deal with other issues involving psychology and the law.
Environmental Psychologists
study the effects of the environment on people's behavior and mental processes.
1879 what happend for psychology ?
the birth of modern psychology is usually given on this date.
Besides the birth day of psychology what eles is significant about this day ?
the year Whilhelm Wundt pronounced "voont" established the first formal psychology reasearch lab at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
psychology can trace its roots back to what ?
Philosophy and science.
What was particularly important to the development of scientific psychology ?
empiricism
What was the argument that empiricism made ?
what we know about the world comes to us through experience and observation, not through imagination or intuition.
tabula rasa in latin is ?
blank slate
Gustav "Fechner" work was especially valuable why ?
because he realized that one could study these mental processes by observing people's reactions to changes in sensory stimuli.
Fechner's psychophysics is ?
predictalbe,relationships between changes in the physical characteristics of stimuli and changes in our psychological experience of them.
The focus on Wundt's work was ?
consciousnes, the mental experiences created by these systems.
Wundt developed a lab method to study the speed of what ?
Decision making and other mental events.
Wundt used a technique meaning "looking inward" which is ?
introspection
Was a student of Wundt and defined structuralism ?
Edward "Titchener"
Belived that analyzing consciousness through introspection was not as important as exploring the capacitites and limitations of mental processes such as lerning and memory.
Hermann "Ebbinghaus"
Was the memory dude ?
Hermann "Ebbinghaus"
Gestaltists said to do what ?
study consciousness as a whole, not piece by piece.
Freud invinted what ?
Psychoanalysis from studying his patients as a doctor.
Establised the first psychology research laboratory in the united states.
G. Stanley Hall
Functionalism
focuses on the role of consciousness in guiding people's ability to make decisions, solve problems, and the like.
William James is best know for ?
Functionalism
John B. Watson is best know for ?
Behaviorism
Watson argued what in an article "Psychology as the behaviorist views it." ?
that psychologists should ignore mental events and base psychology only on what they can actually see in overt behavior and in responses to various stimuli.
Skinner worked on what ?
mapping out the details of how rewards and punishments shape, maintain, and change behavior.
What did Skinner call his mapping of rewards and punishment ?
operant conditioning
Behaviorial psychology dominated how many yrs ?
from 1920's to 1960's about 40yrs.
What two approaches are dead now from ch1 ?
Structuralism and Functionalism
Eclectic means ?
psychologists blend assumptions and methods from two or more approaches in a effort to more fully understand behavior and mental processes.
biological approach assumes ?
that behavior and mental processes are largely shaped by biological processes.
evolutionary approach assumes ?
that the behavior of animals and humans today is also the result of evolution through natural sesction.
psychodynamic approach
a view developed by Freud that emphasizes the interplay of unconscious mental processes in determining human thought, feelings, and behavior.
behavioral approach
an approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, especially from rewards and punishments.
Humanistic Psychology believe ?
people are essentially good, that they are in control of themselves, and that they have an innate tendency to grow toward their highest potential.
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are seen for ?
positive psychology
Rogers a psychologist who had been trained in but later rejected ?
the psychodynamic approach
Maslow also shaped and promoted the ______ approach through his famous________ ?
humanistic approach...........hierarchy-of-needs theory of motivation
biological approach of psychology emphasizes ?
activity of the nervous system, especially of the brain; the action of hormones and other chemicals; and genetics.
evolutionary approach of psychology emphasizes ?
the ways in which behavior and mental processes are adaptive for survival.
psychodynamic approach of psycology emphasizes ?
internal conflicts, mostly unconscious, which usually pit sexual or aggressive instincts against environmntal obstacles to their expression.
behavioral approach of psychology emphasizes ?
learning, especially each person's experience with rewards and punishments.
define culture
the accumulation of valuse, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, occupational choices, and the like for a group of people who share a common language and environment.
cognitive approach of psychology emphasizes ?
mechanisms through which people receive, store, retrieve, and otherwise process information.
humanistic approach of psychology emphasizes ?
individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in guilding behavior and mental processes.
Individualist cultures are such as those typical of ?
North America and Western Europe, tend to value personal rather than group goals and achievement.
Collectivist cultures are such as those typical of ?
Japan, tend to think of themselves mainly as part of family or work groups.
In 1879 Wundt established the first ?
psychology center.
Wundt developed what technique and what two main points did this technique consist of ?
introspection........sensation and perception.
Wundt had writien the first Psychology journal in what ?
Biological Psychology
structuralism has and is what over time ?
died out
Greek/ Roman ERA three main basis for Psychology
Philosophy, Medicine, Law
One bend on Philosophy is as in ch1 is ?
Metaphysics
The roots of natural sciences ?
Solipsisms, Materialism, Natural Philosophy.
Metaphysics is ?
The branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, substance and attribute, fact and value.
solipsisms is ?
the theory that only the self exists, or can be proved to exist.
Materialism is ?
the theory in philosophy that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physcial phenomena.
Empiricism is ?
the view that experience, especially of the sences, is the only source of knowledge.
Fechner a student of Wundt form ch 1
psycophsicis how we produce and interact with the environment
JND is
Just notable difference
James a resercher who had the first ?
psychology lab in the United States for students.
James had a theroy of ?
Functionalism reason things exist.
Functionalism is now and is ?
A Dead topic
G. Stanley Hall had the first ?
working psychology lab (research)
G. Stanley Hall was the first President of the ?
APA American Pschology Association
John B. Watson was the father of ?
Behaviorism
John B. Watson described behaviorism as ?
that which can be observed
John B. Watson was only interested in ?
things that could be operationally defined
Pavlov was intersted in __________who studied __________what ?
classical conditionning.......gastric resonences of dogs
BF Skinner was intersted in ? Which is _________ ?
operant conditioning.......rewards and punishment
Behaviolism dominated psychology for how many yrs ?
40yrs
The Cognitive revolutions is or is an example of currently the ?
the most popular psychology
List some of Freud's intersts and studies/reaserch from ch1 ?
Psychoanalysis, Internal Theory, and Conflicts and Instincts.
Freud is said to be the Grandfather of ?
Behaviourism
Ebbinghaus interests studied ?
memory and forgetting
Gestalt is ?
seeing something imcomplete and your mind fills in the blanks. (Perception)
Name the Gestaltist talked about in Ch1 ?
Wertheimer, Kofka, and Kohler
Kohler also is the same guy that what ?
Makes Kohler sinks and faucets
Systems Theory is ?
how people get along with each other; systems dont like to change
Biological Psychology from your notes is the study of ?
Body and Behavior
From notes a subfield of Biological Psychology is and subfields of those are what ?
Neuropsychology
----Cogvitive Neuropsychology
----Clinical Neuropsychology
From notes Evolutionary Psychology is ?
how our bodies have changed over time.
Humanism list things about it that come from notes ?
Individual , looks at what goes right , people are basically good , uniqueness
Transpersonal and Existential look at what ?
psychical points of view
The ABC's are ?
A-affect__emotions/feelings
B-Behavior__observation/action
"Doing"
C-Cognition__Mental;
"Thinking"
List from notes what clinical and counseling psychology have in common ?
Mental health/ Quality of Life/ Counseling/ Therapy
What is it that clinical psychology holds specifically different from counseling psychology ?
Medical Model/ Sick person point of View/ Therapy
What is it that counseling psychology holds specifically different from clinical psychology ?
Social/ Developmental/ Well person point of View/ counseling
Both clinical and counseling psychologist do what specifically
Counsel and Give Therapy
Industrial Organizational psychology or know as ?
I/O......industrial and organizational
Human Factors Psychology from notes is ? and what is a part of it ?
Person/machine interfface studies and engineering
School Psychologist from notes are/do what ?
Counseling Psychology in K-12 Direct service providers.
Educational Psychologitst from notes apply what to schools and do what ?
I/0 applied to schools and traning teachers and guidence counselors
Experimental Psychologist from notes list things about them ?
Cognitive, mental processes, memory, Info processing
Social Psychologist from notes list things about them ?
"universal discipline", study of people and groups, team work, social behavior, and personality
Developmental Psychologist from notes list the things about them?
study changes in ABC's, Study patients across a lifetime