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66 Cards in this Set

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Why may differences of IQ results occur between ethnicities?

Some have suggested enviro factors and others suggest biological diffs.

Why does Steele think many refuse to report their racial identity?

African Americans perform poorer on tests when race is revealed.

Why does Whittington think many refuse to report their racial identity?

Whites feel there is discrimination in favour of ethnic minorities.

What does the college board believe about people refusing to report their racial identity?

Poorly designed online questionnaire

Why was the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission created? (EEOC)

Guidelines were published for employee selection procedures.

The government will view any screening procedure as having adverse impact if..

Systematically rejects higher number of minority and nonminority applicants.

When selection procedure rejects minorities more than non, a employer must...

Demonstrate that the procedure has validity for inferences employer wants to make.

Do differences in ethnic group scores indicate test bias?

No, it does not honey.

What did Roth and colleagues study summarize?

Differences in job performance. Compared blacks and whites.

What did Roths study show?

Subjective measures showed diff between black and white job performance but object measures show greater difference.

What are some issues with bias on a test?

Some may have not had an opportunity to learn about some items and members of ethnic groups might answer some items diff but correctly.

What do researchers argue about bias found in intelligence tests?

Affected by language skills inculcated as part of white, middle class upbringing but foreign to inner-city children.

What did Flaugher conclude about issues of language and content of individual test items in intelligence tests?

Perceived test bias problems are based on misunderstandings about the way tests are usually interpreted

What is true for African American children but not white?

They can comprehend white and african american dialect.

On tests developed by the ETS, like the GRE, who scores highest?

Asians obviously. Men and women are about same but men score higher with quantative stuff

What does differential item functioning analysis attempt to identify?

Items that are specifically biased against any ethnic, racial or gender group.

Does DIF eliminate diffs between 2 groups?

Only had slight effects

What do critics argue about verbal content of test items?

Most objectionable because it is unfamiliar to minority groups

What have studies not supported the popular belief of when it comes to test bias?

Items have diff meanings for diff groups

What is an example of criterion related sources of bias?

When average minority applicants have lower test scores and are predicted to do poorly in college in comparison with non-minorities

How do you asses criterion related evidence for validity?

Coefficient or correlation between the test and some criterion.

What is an isodensity curve?

An elipse used to encircle a specified portion of the cases that constitute a particular group

What does the combined regression line do to correct for bias in criterion related bias?

Over predicts minority performance and under predicts non minority performance

What alternatives are suggested by those who dont think tests are fair?

Outlaw psychological tests for minorities or make one that's suitable for minorities

What are 3 assessment tests for minorities?

Chitling test, Black Intelligence test of cultural homogeneity (BITCH) <

What are two potential explanations for why some children do poorly on standardized tests?



Less intelligent or ignorant of right response

What was the Chitling test originally named?

Dove Counterbalance General intelligence test

Why was Chitling test developed?

African Americand and whites are not speaking same language. On this test white kids would probably score lower.

What kind of validity has been established for the Chitling?

Face Validity

When bias against a race or "racism" occurs in a test, what did Williams label this as?

Scientific racism because it is supported by scientific validity studies

What was the measurement of "intelligence" in the BITCH that Williams thought was important in the black community?

A survival quotient

Who developed the BITCH?

Williams

What does the BITCH as respondents to do?

Define 100 vocabulary words relevant to African American culture

What does the BITCH not give info on?

Reasoning abilities

How can the BITCH be a valuable tool?...these BITCH sentences are becoming uncomfortable..

Measures white familiarity with black community

What did Cronbach note about reasoning skills?

People with abstract reasoning skills may function poorly in unfamiliar community, people with poor ones may function well in familiar community

What did Mercer and Mannheim (developers of the SOMPA) believe?

Members of a politically dominant group provide interpretations of events within a society and do so from their own perspective

What was Mercers emphasis?

Take into consideration that people work from different bases of knowledge

What is the one important philosophical assumption that underlies the devel. of the SOMPA?

All cultural groups have the same average potential

What was Mercer's main concern about consequences of labeling children mentally retarded?

Minorities score low on traditional tests because they are ignorant of correct answers

What 3 approaches does the SOMPA attempt to integrate?

Medical, social and pluralistic

What does the medical part of the SOMPA include?

Tests of hearing, vision and motor function

What does the social-system portion of the SOMPA include?



Resembles assessment procedures from entire WISC-R

What does pluralistic part of SOMPA include?



Evaluates WISC-R scores against those for groups that have similar social and cultural backgrounds

What are adjusted scores known as?

Estimated learning potentials

ELP's are poorer predictors than WISC-R scores, how did Mercer refute this?

Test not to determine what child will do well but which are retarded

What are the potential effects of Mercers work?

A quota system for EMR classes and making proportions of ethnic groups in EMR classes more representative. Save tax dollars by identifying less ethnic children as EMR students.

What 3 ethical positions were identified by hunter and Schmidt wehen it came to test bias and ethical concerns?

Unqualified individualism, the use of quotas and qualified individualism

How would supporters of unqualified individualism use tests?

Select the most qualified individuals they could find. A test is fair if it finds best candidate for job no matter race or gender.

If race or gender was a valid predictor of performance over and above info in the test, who would have no problem considering this info?

Unqualified individualists

What does the use of quotas do?

Recognizes race and gender differences. Selection procedures are considered bias if % if applicants admitted differs from % in population. Admission of applicants in terms of race and gender has to be representative of population

What is qualified individualism?

Selecting the best qualified people while ignoring information about personal characteristics so not to favour and over hire minority group.

Why do qualified individualists not want to over hire minorities?

Lower average job performance because applicants with lower test scores will be hired. This view not supported by studies.

Why is unqualified individualism favoured by businesses?

Ensures highest employee productivity

What is a decision called when balancing it balances 2 competing goals? In this case criterion performance and ethnic balance

Pareto optimal



What occurs in the ideal Pareto improvement?

One group is made better off without making the other group wore off.

What was the most controversial defense of testing?

The book The Bell Curve

What are 2 reasons that it's helpful to know how groups differ in their approaches to problem solving?

Can guide the development of pluralistic educational programs. Can lead to the development of improved predictors of success for minority groups.

What did Goldman's differential process theory maintain?

Differential strategies may lead to effective solutions for many types of tasks. Strategies-ways ppl go about soving problems- mediate abilities and performances

What did Gardner suggest about intelligence?

There are 7 distinct types: Linguistic, musical, logical mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic and 2 diff forms of personal intelligence

What did Goldman and Hartig's study find?

Scores on the WISC were unrelated to teachers ratings of classroom performance for minority children. For nonminority children there was a sig. relation. Test is valid for non minority but not minority.

What are 3 reasons not to use grades as criterion?

Teachers grades are unstandardized and open to subjective bias. Few available studies use grades as criterion. Suck for minorities

What is the best predictor of performance on a standardized test?

Family income

Most experts agree that tests measure..

Inborn potential and effects of cumulative experience

How are verbal and numerical abilities acquired?

Proper nurturing so a student can change their score.

What may explain some of the differences between groups in test performance?

Coaching and test preparation