Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dr. Lorenzo is a psychologist who studies how the thinking skills of children change during the elementary school years (ages 5 to 10). Dr. Lorenzo's work belongs to the _______ subfield of psychology.
A. developmental
B. biological
C. personality
D. social
A. developmental
Acme Pharmaceuticals has just hired a cognitive psychologist to design a new pill container that would be easy for an older person to open, yet difficult for a toddler. To consider the physical capabilities and limitations of both age groups, the cognitive psychologist will need to draw on the knowledge accumulated in which subfield of psychology?
A. developmental
B. biological
C. personality
D. social
A. developmental They need to know the physical abilities of people across different developmental ages.
Dr. Taylor recently earned her Ph.D. in psychology and is working to ensure that a full array of psychological services are available in underprivileged local areas. She is making sure that people who need these mental health services have access to them. Based on this information, Dr. Taylor is a(n) _______ psychologist.
A. health
B. social
C. industrial/organizational
D. community
D. community
Dr. Shore is using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to examine which parts of the brain are active during various creative endeavors. Dr. Shore is likely what type of psychologist?
A. clinical
B. cognitive
C. developmental
D. biological
D. biological
Biological psychologists investigate mental processes and behavior by examining the brain and physical responses to information.
Dr. Rosengram studies how the brain chemical, dopamine, increases as people argue with one another. She is using the _______ approach to study _______ psychology.
A. biological; organizational
B. psychodynamic; biological
C. behavioral; social
D. biological; social
D. biological; social
Dr. Mills studies chimpanzees in his psychology research lab. Over the years of observing them, he has come to believe that their behavior is governed by the rewards and punishments they experience. Dr. Mills' belief aligns with the ________ approach to psychology.
A. humanistic
B. evolutionary
C. psychodynamic
D. behavioral
D. behavioral
Robert was complaining to his friend about his difficulties being affectionate with his wife in public. His friend tells him that he needs to deal with his inner conflict between his instinctive, largely unconscious desires and how they might compare to society's pressures. James is clearly using a __________ approach.
A. cognitive
B. humanistic
C. psychodynamic
D. behavioral
C. psychodynamic
Mr. Thomas is a 1st grade teacher. He wonders why some of his students learn to read very easily and why others are struggling. Mr. Thomas consults the school psychologist, who explains that the children who are struggling might have difficulty mentally representing alphabet information or processing the information they read. The school psychologist's explanation aligns with the ______ approach to psychology.
A. psychodynamic
B. cognitive
C. behavioral
D. biological
B. cognitive
Roberto studies what people enjoy about listening to classical music. Roberto claims that it would be useless to isolate and listen to only a rhythm, a violin part, or any other single aspect of music because it is the perception of the complete piece that is important. Roberto's emphasis on NOT dividing music in parts is similar to
A. gestalt psychology.
B. structuralism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.
A. gestalt psychology.
An advertising campaign aimed at getting consumers to buy a product because it will make them different from others would probably be most successful in ______________ cultures.
A. individualist
B. culturalist
C. collectivist
D. communist
A. individualist
Dante is interested in whether students with high grade point averages tend to be happier than those with low grade point averages. What is the BEST research method to use to investigate this question?
A. an experiment
B. naturalistic observation
C. a case study
D. a correlational study
D. a correlational study
Hemineglect syndrome is caused by damage to the right parietal lobe of the brain and causes the person to neglect the left side of their body. This is an extremely rare disorder of the brain. Because of the infrequency of this disorder it is likely that most of the research on hemineglect syndrome has been done using
A. naturalistic observation.
B. surveys.
C. case studies.
D. experiments.
C. case studies.
While conducting an experiment on alcohol tolerance, Dr. Guff solicits his subjects at the door to Skam’s (a local drinking and social establishment). When he publishes his findings (that people are extremely tolerant to the effects of alcohol), Dr. Guff’s research is criticized because
A. the sample was random.
B. he used a double-blind design.
C. the sample was biased.
D. there were too many dependent variables.
C. the sample was biased.
Dr. Zumbahlen is conducting a research study in which she is interested in the effects of aerobic activity on weight loss. Aerobic activity is defined by 30 minutes of exercise on the treadmill, 3 times a week. This specific way of defining aerobic activity is referred to as a(n) _____ definition.
A. operational
B. empirical
C. experimental
D. construct
A. operational
I am conducting an experiment to determine whether listening to classical music while studying improves performance on a subsequent test. Twenty subjects are assigned to a "classical music" condition, and 20 other subjects are assigned to a "no music" condition. After reading two text book chapters (with or without classical music in the background), each subject takes a test about the readings. The independent variable in this experiment is ____.
A. the amount of time subjects have to read the chapters
B. the amount of time subject have to complete the test
C. the number of correctly answered test questions for each subject
D. the condition (music / no music) into which each subject is placed
D. the condition (music / no music) into which each subject is placed
Dr. Ambien wants to know if sleep promotes vocabulary learning in kindergartners. He designs an experiment to test this. In the morning, the kindergartners hear a list of words from their teachers. Afterwards, one group sleeps for an hour and another group gets to play. Before the children go home, the teachers repeat the word list one word at a time to each child and ask them if they have heard that word before. The dependent variable is
A. the number of words children say they have heard before.
B. whether they sleep or not.
C. the number of words on the word list.
D. the amount of play time allowed.
A. the number of words children say they have heard before.
Dr. Finch is doing a study on the effects of an elevated mood on memory. To elevate their mood, he tells the experimental group that participation in the study will be accepted in lieu of one of three class assignments. He does not tell that to the control group. However, someone comes into the room where both groups are waiting for their memory task and tells them that the school's basketball team has just won the national title. That knowledge then becomes a(n)
A. confounding variable.
B. dependent variable.
C. controlled variable.
D. independent variable.
A. confounding variable.
When plotting her data Eunsam finds that there are a few extreme scores in the data set. She wants to use a measure of central tendency that will minimize the effects of these extreme scores. Which of the following measures should she choose?
A. Mode
B. Standard deviation
C. Mean
D. Median
D. Median
Deron just completed a correlational study looking at SAT scores and height. Which of the following correlations would imply the strongest relationship between the two variables?
A. +.71
B. -.35
C. +.14
D. -.82
D. -.82
Researchers have found that television watching is positively correlated with childhood obesity. Accordingly, it can be definitively concluded that
A. watching television causes children's weight gain.
B. watching television has nothing to do with children's weight.
C. being heavy causes a child to watch a lot of television.
D. the more television a child watches, the more likely he/she is to be obese.
D. the more television a child watches, the more likely he/she is to be obese.
Alejandro comes from a collectivist culture. Compared to someone from the U.S., Alejandro is more likely to
A. be self-assured.
B. have self-defined goals.
C. blame failure on personal efforts.
D. take credit for successes.
C. blame failure on personal efforts.
During a conversation, Dave insisted that it was "common sense" and "obvious" that the full moon makes people behave differently. Jane, however, argued that we should rely on empiricism, which is knowledge coming
A. from asking for other people's opinions.
B. through consulting psychic experts.
C. through experience and careful observation.
D. from taking classes on moon cycles.
C. through experience and careful observation.
Wilhelm Wundt wanted to examine the components of consciousness, an approach later called __________; William James was more interested in how consciousness helps people adapt to their environments, an approach later called __________.
A. structuralism, functionalism
B. structuralism, behaviorism
C. psychoanalysis, behaviorism
D. functionalism, psychoanalysis
A. structuralism, functionalism
Jarrod believes that introspection is the only way to obtain good data. In his research, he is trying to identify the basic structures of consciousness. Jarrod’s research most closely adheres to the tenets of the _______ school of psychology.
A. humanistic
B. structuralist
C. Gestalt
D. functionalist
B. structuralist
Agnieszka is testing the new edition of a physics textbook. She randomly assigns some students to use the old edition of the book, and some students to use the new edition. Agnieszka find that the students who used the new edition get better grades, and the difference is statistically significant. From this, Agnieszka can conclude that
A. there is no chance she used a biased sample.
B. the new edition is worth buying.
C. there is a correlation but not necessarily a causation.
D. the difference in grades is unlikely to be because of chance.
D. the difference in grades is unlikely to be because of chance.
Dr. Denton designed an experiment to test the hypothesis that children who are taught alternative ways of responding to failure will show increased persistence in problem solving. Dr. Denton assigned half of a random sample of third-graders to a tutor who emphasized learning from mistakes and increasing knowledge rather than improving grades. The other half of the sample received tutoring without the emphasis on “learning goals.” After two months of tutoring, both groups were given a test of persistence. A possible random variable in this experiment is the
A. amount of time before the persistence test.
B. persistence test score.
C. level of intelligence of the children.
D. None of the above.
C. level of intelligence of the children.
At the annual dog show the four top dogs received scores of 25, 35, 55, and 65. What was their range?
A. 40
B. 45
C. 25
D. 65
A. 40
The football team’s punter wants to determine how consistent his kicking distances were last season. Which of the following will give him the most information?
A. Mean
B. Standard deviation
C. Mode
D. Median
B. Standard deviation
Harlow examined attachment in baby monkeys. He discovered that baby monkeys spent the majority of their day with ______, which provided support for the importance of ______ in parenting.
A. a wire mother who provided food; nurturance
B. other baby monkeys; socialization
C. a soft, cloth mother that provided no food; attachment
D. other adult monkeys; discipline
C. a soft, cloth mother that provided no food; attachment
Madison was a straight-A student and obedient daughter until she was 16. When she turned 16, she became very rebellious and tried to change her image by dyeing her hair and hanging out with a new group of friends. According to Erikson, Madison was trying to resolve the crisis of
A. generativity versus stagnation.
B. industry versus inferiority.
C. trust versus mistrust.
D. identity versus role confusion.
D. identity versus role confusion.
To prepare for newborn Kelsey's homecoming, her parents put large pictures on the wall next to their bed where Kelsey will sleep. According to research, Kelsey will be most interested in pictures of
A. flowers and trees.
B. human faces or face-like drawings.
C. monkeys swinging in a tree.
D. small red and white polka dots.
B. human faces or face-like drawings.
Ainsley and her friends went to Meijer late at night. Ainsley's friends dared her to steal a candy bar. Ainsley refused because there were security cameras all over the store and she didn't want to get caught and then yelled at by the Rent-A-Cops. According to Kohlberg, Ainsley is at what level of moral reasoning?
A. postconventional
B. preconventional
C. conventional
D. formal conventional
B. preconventional
Avery lives in a town that has a local baseball field where only men are allowed to play. His family has decided to protest this restriction, but Avery doesn't feel that strongly about it. He decides to protest anyway because he feels obligated to help out his family. Avery's decision would fall into which of Kohlberg's stages?
A. Preconventional
B. Postconventional
C. Conventional
D. Formal Operational
C. Conventional
Blake is having trouble at school. His teacher describes him as very dependent on her help, and fairly immature. She has also noticed that he throws a lot of tempter tantrums when he doesn't get his way. After observing Blake's parents interacting with him, you come to the conclusion that they have a(n) ____________parenting style.
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. permissive
D. insecure
C. permissive
Chloe loses interest in a toy train set every time the train disappears into a long tunnel. Piaget would describe Chloe as being in the ______ stage.
A. concrete operational
B. sensorioperational
C. sensorimotor
D. preoperational
C. sensorimotor
Ella and her friend Grace are playing with play dough and are making all kinds of cool shapes. Ella rolls her play dough out and makes a squiggly worm. Grace says, "Hey, why is your play dough so much bigger then mine?" Ella says, "We still have the same amount, mine is just rolled out." Grace is at Piaget's _______ stage and Ella is at the________ stage.
A. Concrete, Formal
B. Sensorimotor, Preoperational
C. Concrete, Preoperational
D. Preoperational, Concrete
D. Preoperational, Concrete
Tyra is pregnant. Her doctor tells her that her unborn child can kick, turn its head, open its eyes, swallow, and already has taste buds. Therefore, Tyra's unborn child is in the __________ stage of prenatal development.
A. germinal
B. embryonic
C. critical
D. fetal
D. fetal
Young MC is 3 years old and loves to eat Cheerios. He has learned to pick up the crunchy cereal circles with his fingers and shove them into his mouth. His parents recently gave him pudding. He quickly learned that picking it up with his fingers and shoving it into his mouth didn't work very well because pudding needs to be eaten with a spoon. Young MC's new method of eating pudding with a spoon shows
A. assimilation.
B. conservation.
C. accommodation.
D. animism.
C. accommodation.
Callie was in an accident and the doctors were forced to perform emergency brain surgery. Callie survived but the doctors are still testing her cognitive abilities. When a picture of a pencil is presented so it is processed by her left hemisphere, Callie can say "pencil" without a problem. When a picture of a pencil is presented so it is processed by her right hemisphere, Callie can't say the name "pencil" but she can pick out a pencil from a group of objects with her left hand. Callie's brain surgery most likely destroyed
A. Broca's area.
B. Wernicke's area.
C. her corpus callosum.
D. her thalamus.
C. her corpus callosum.
What is the difference between neurotransmitters and endocrine hormones?
A. Endocrine hormones are released into synapses, whereas neurotransmitters are released into the bloodstream.
B. Endocrine hormones can stimulate any cell in the body, whereas neurotransmitters can only influence cells with target receptors.
C. Neurotransmitters are released into synapses, whereas endocrine hormones are released into the bloodstream.
D. Neurotransmitters can stimulate any cell in the body, whereas endocrine hormones can only influence cells with target receptors.
C. Neurotransmitters are released into synapses, whereas endocrine hormones are released into the bloodstream.
Bobby, Peter, and Greg were working outside on their bikes when their father, Mike, accidentally slipped on some axle grease and pulled the trigger of the nail gun he was carrying several times as he fell. All four survived, but Bobby's hippocampus, Peter's amygdala, Greg's substantia nigra, and Mike's hypothalamus were destroyed. Who will no longer be able to dance?
A. Bobby
B. Peter
C. Greg
D. Mike
C. Greg
Ted experienced a brain injury and now has difficulty coordinating fine movements to button his shirt. Ted most likely injured his
A. medulla.
B. cerebellum.
C. hypothalamus.
D. amygdala
B. cerebellum.
Neuron Abby is trying to send a message to Neuron Betty. At the moment, Neuron Abby is at rest and isn't sending a message because she is _____________. However, once she becomes _________, then more ___________ molecules will enter and an action potential will begin.
A. depolarized, polarized, positive
B. polarized, depolarized, negative
C. depolarized, polarized, negative
D. polarized, depolarized, positive
D. polarized, depolarized, positive
Joey the Neuron is jealous of his friend, Ross the Neuron. Every time Joey and Ross race to see who can send the fastest action potential, Ross always wins. Ross's action potentials are faster because his axon has ______ and Joey's axon does not.
A. neurotransmitters
B. myelin
C. a synapse
D. a soma
B. myelin
Sam has schizophrenia. He started taking medication to decrease his symptoms. However, he now has difficulty initiating smooth movement. The drug that Sam took appears to have blocked his ______ receptors.
A. endorphin
B. dopamine
C. glutamate
D. serotonin
B. dopamine
Your instructor, Jenny, got very excited when she saw a camel and approached it to take a picture. However, she got shocked by the electric fence surrounding the camel. Which type of cell transmitted the message of pain towards Jenny's spinal cord?
A. afferent neurons
B. motor neurons
C. glial cells
D. efferent neurons
A. afferent neurons
Mikel has to keep his apartment cool in the summer because he has a nervous system disorder that makes him unable to sweat. The problem is most likely in Mikel's
A. afferent neurons.
B. autonomic nervous system.
C. spinal cord.
D. somatic nervous system.
B. autonomic nervous system.
Every time Derek Jeter hears the national anthem playing before his baseball game starts, his heart starts pounding, because it signals that the game is about to begin (though before he played baseball, this never happened). The national anthem has become a
A. conditioned response.
B. unconditioned response.
C. conditioned stimulus.
D. unconditioned stimulus.
C. conditioned stimulus.
Whenever Lisa's grandparents visit, they kiss her on the lips. Lisa hates this and eventually learns that they will not kiss her if she is coughing. Now as soon as her grandparents enter her home, she pretends to cough. This is an example of
A. escape conditioning.
B. avoidance conditioning.
C. observational learning.
D. primary reinforcement.
B. avoidance conditioning.
Winston has learned that whenever he is in the shower and someone flushes a toilet, he receives a blast of scalding hot water. Now Winston turns the water off in the shower as soon as he hears someone flush a toilet. He does not, however, turn off the water in the shower when he hears someone turn on the bathroom sink faucet. This is due to a phenomon called stimulus
A. generalization.
B. reconditioning.
C. extinction.
D. discrimination.
D. discrimination.
Jerome tried to please his parents by always being good, but whenever Jerome's older brother, Tom, misbehaved, their parents would punish both Tom and Jerome. Jerome soon stopped trying to please his parents because he didn't think it would make any difference. This change in Jerome's behavior is an example of
A. classical conditioning.
B. positive reinforcement.
C. learned helplessness.
D. observational learning.
C. learned helplessness.
Miguel's friend gets a computer virus from clicking on a link in an e-mail message. After seeing this, Miguel immediately stops clicking on any suspicious links in his own e-mail. Miguel's behavior has changed as a result of
A. escape conditioning.
B. observational learning.
C. latent learning.
D. second-order conditioning.
B. observational learning.
Will does not like it when his infant son, Jayden, cries. Will finds that if he makes goofy faces while Jayden is crying, Jayden will stop. Which learning principle best explains why Will is more likely in the future to make goofy faces to make Jayden stop crying?
A. Positive reinforcement
B. Classical conditioning
C. Stimulus generalization
D. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative reinforcement
In Melody's class she takes attendance on the average every 5 to 10 days, and students who are present receive extra points. This is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
A. Fixed-ratio
B. Variable-ratio
C. Fixed-interval
D. Variable-interval
D. Variable-interval
It has been rumored that campus parking enforcement officers receive a $10 bonus for every twenty tickets they write. An unnamed campus parking administrator has remarked off the record, "This ______ schedule of reinforcement keeps our officers diligent and busy."
A. fixed-ratio
B. variable-interval
C. variable-ratio
D. fixed-interval
A. fixed-ratio
Joann is a difficult student who has problems sitting still and reading during independent reading time. Mr. Larson first gave Joann a coupon every time she picked out a book from the shelf. Next, he gave her a coupon ever time she sat at her desk with the book. Finally, he gave her a coupon every time she read for 5 minutes. Now Joann reads independently. Mr. Larson taught her to do so using
A. escape conditioning.
B. a variable-interval schedule.
C. shaping.
D. second-order conditioning.
C. shaping.
Crystal was involved in a serious snowmobile accident. Immediately after the accident she could not remember the four days prior to the injury. As she recovered, she eventually remembered everything except the actual snowmobile ride that resulted in the injury. Crystal experienced _________ amnesia.
A. anterograde
B. retrograde
C. infantile
D. proactive
B. retrograde
Zahara is trying to learn her basketball's team new plays for the year. But, she is having trouble because she kept confusing the new plays with the plays she had learned with her old coach last season. Zahara is experiencing
A. retroactive interference.
B. a repressed memory.
C. proactive interference.
D. decay.
C. proactive interference.
Kelly is taking her calculus final, which she has studied for all term. She has to recall several formulae from her ______ memory to solve the problems using her ______ memory.
A. short-term; working
B. long-term; working
C. short-term; long-term
D. long-term; short-term
B. long-term; working
As Derrick is about to leave work, he glances out the window to see if it's raining. As he turns away, his coworker asks him if the streets were busy with traffic. But Derrick can't answer the question, because the scene outside has already disappeared from his ______ memory.
A. working
B. sensory
C. short-term
D. semantic
B. sensory
Mohamed no longer remembers the exact details of the paintings that he learned about in an art history class last year. This is because long-term memories
A. decay rapidly.
B. are hard to remember when they are images.
C. are encoded semantically.
D. are lost when they exceed the capacity of long-term memory.
C. are encoded semantically.
Bart tells Lisa about his new cat, Scratchy. Even though Bart does not mention that Scratchy has fur, Lisa knows this because she makes this generalization from the facts she knows about cats. Lisa's generalization about Scratchy best demonstrates
A. the method of savings.
B. a false memory.
C. the feeling-of-knowing experience.
D. the parallel distributed processing model of memory.
D. the parallel distributed processing model of memory.
Your tennis coach keeps telling you that you have to physically practice swinging your tennis racket instead of just watching other people hit the ball. Which model of memory is your coach using to help you improve your tennis swing?
A. Parallel distributed processing model
B. Levels of processing model
C. Information processing model
D. Transfer appropriate processing model
D. Transfer appropriate processing model
Suzie stopped at the grocery store on her way home from work. She forgot her shopping list in the car but decided to buy what items she could remember from the list anyway. When she got home, she realized that she had remembered to buy the first three items on the list and the last three items on the list but nothing else. Suzie's buying pattern demonstrates ______ and ________.
A. maintenance rehearsal; elaborative rehearsal.
B. encoding specificity; context-dependent memory.
C. the primacy effect; the recency effect.
D. decay; interference.
C. the primacy effect; the recency effect.
In the spring Carrie is headed to her 10 year high school reunion. When she goes back into her old school, it is likely she will remember all sorts of things that happened in that building when she went to school there. This is an example of ____________ memory.
A. context-dependent
B. state-dependent
C. emotional
D. working
A. context-dependent
Seven-year-old Ben is riding his bike to the park to meet some friends. He stops at a stop sign and signals his intention to turn left into the park. Ben's memory of the laws of the road is an example of ______________ memory, whereas his ability to ride the bike shows ______________ memory.
A. episodic; semantic
B. semantic; episodic
C. episodic; procedural
D. semantic; procedural
D. semantic; procedural
Juan is taking a history exam that has 50 "true or false" questions. He notices that he has answered "true" for the first 25 questions and figures that it must be time for a "false" answer. So, he answers "false" for question 26. Juan's decision making has been influenced by the
A. anchoring heuristic.
B. gambler's fallacy.
C. confirmation bias.
D. representativeness heuristic.
B. gambler's fallacy.
Blake needs new batteries and decides to buy a package of Energizer batteries. His friend asks him why he selected Energizer, and Blake replies, "I guess because I constantly see those commercials with the Energizer bunny!" Blake appears to be relying on the _________ heuristic.
A. availability
B. representativeness
C. anchoring
D. analogical
A. availability
Debbie's young daughter is thirsty and says, "Give juice." This sentence is an example of
A. overextending.
B. one-word speech.
C. babbling.
D. telegraphic speech.
D. telegraphic speech.
While drunk, Bruno declares, "I'm going to rent a dinosaur!" Bruno's statement has unusual
A. syntax.
B. morphemes.
C. phonemes.
D. semantics.
D. semantics.
Sarah comes downstairs and exclaims, "There's a bat in the attic!" Sarah's father rushes to call the exterminator to get rid of the flying animal. Sarah's little brother grabs his baseball glove and ball so he can play with the baseball bat. Sarah's father and brother differed in what they thought Sarah's ______ was/were.
A. deep structure.
B. surface structure.
C. phonemes.
D. syntax.
A. deep structure.
An equilateral triangle has three equal sides and three angles that measure 60 degrees. An object that has these qualities is always an equilateral triangle. An object that does not have these qualities is not an equilateral triangle. An equilateral triangle is
A. a formal concept.
B. a natural concept.
C. a script.
D. a mental model.
A. a formal concept.
Shirley loves going to the movie theatre in the summer. She knows that when she gets there, she will get yummy movie popcorn, sit in a comfortable seat, and feel refreshed by the cool air conditioning in the theater. All of these things make up her movie theater
A. schema.
B. script.
C. mental model.
D. mental map.
B. script.
Amos learned that if his car did not start on the first try, pressing the gas pedal before trying to start it again got the car to work. The next time Amo's car did not start, he tried pressing the gas pedal, but this did not work. He immediately concluded that his car needed repairs and did not notice that he was simply out of gas. Amos was experiencing
A. functional fixedness.
B. incubation.
C. a mental set.
D. loss aversion.
C. a mental set.
Lila cannot figure out the answer to a difficult problem on her engineering homework. So, she takes a break and watches a movie. After a couple of hours, Lila looks at the problem again and immediately sees the answer. Lila solved this problem through
A. means-end analysis.
B. incubation.
C. a mental set.
D. an analogy.
B. incubation.
Kelly is faced with looming deadlines at her job and mounting undone chores at home. She tells herself, "Stop worrying about how much you have to do. Nobody can be perfect all the time." Kelly is using
A. cognitive restructuring.
B. problem-focused coping.
C. dispositional optimism.
D. progressive relaxation.
A. cognitive restructuring.
Justin is a veteran who just returned home from a war. The most clear sign that Justin might be experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder is if he
A. focuses on the negative aspects of being a soldier.
B. feels indifferent about being a soldier.
C. has vivid nightmares of dangerous events he experienced.
D. feels that his military service helped him grow as a person.
C. has vivid nightmares of dangerous events he experienced.
David lives in New Mexico and likes to go on long hikes in the sun. He doesn't worry about putting on sunscreen until he hears that he has a family risk for skin cancer. Suddenly, David starts putting on sunscreen whenever he goes outside. David's change in behavior can probably be attributed to a change in
A. expected benefits.
B. maintenance.
C. personal threat.
D. self-efficacy.
C. personal threat.
Filipe is being affected by stressors at work because he is afraid of being laid off and at home because he and his wife have recently become parents. As a result, Filipe is more likely to have an impaired immune system because
A. activity in the striatum has decreased.
B. his levels of cortisol are low.
C. activity in the striatum has increased.
D. his levels of cortisol are high.
D. his levels of cortisol are high.
Imagine you are enrolled in a very difficult quantum physics class. If the main factors determining your stress level in this class are (1) how predictable the tests are, and (2) your perceived control over the test, then what testing situation creates the greatest amount of stress?
A. low predictability and high controllability
B. low predictability and low controllability
C. high predictability and low controllability
D. high predictability and high controllability
B. low predictability and low controllability
After working a stressful job for years, Kyle has developed high blood pressure and heart disease. Kyle is probably in which stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
A. exhaustion
B. fight-or-flight
C. resistance
D. alarm
A. exhaustion
Tyrone and his partner have just broken up. He can't stop thinking about his ex, especially because he did not anticipate the break-up at all. Which of the following statements best describes Tyrone's stress response and the stress mediators in the situation?
A. Tyrone is experiencing a ruminative thinking stress response, where the unpredictability of the situation is making the stress worse.
B. Tyrone is experiencing a catastrophizing stress response, where his avoidance of the situation is making the stress worse.
C. Tyrone is experiencing a ruminative thinking stress response, where his avoidance of the situation is making the stress worse.
D. Tyrone is experiencing a catastrophizing stress response, where the unpredictability of the situation is making the stress worse.
A. Tyrone is experiencing a ruminative thinking stress response, where the unpredictability of the situation is making the stress worse.
Which of the following people is experiencing a stressor that falls in the life changes and strains category?
A. Chandler, who just dropped his coffee.
B. Ross, whose wife just had a baby.
C. Monica, who spends two hours in traffic each day on her way to work.
D. Rachel, who was just in a car accident.
B. Ross, whose wife just had a baby.
Roshan understands that smoking cigarettes is unhealthy, and he is seriously considering quitting. In which stage of readiness is Roshan?
A. Precontemplation
B. Contemplation
C. Preparation
D. Maintenance
B. Contemplation