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103 Cards in this Set

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Personality

Characteristics, emotional responses and ways in which individuals responds to the environment; differ across individuals and are relatively consistent across time.

Developmental theories of personality

Attachment (how does the bond with your primary caregiver impact)


Freudian


Social Learning

Trait

Characteristic and stable pattern of thought, feeling, or behavior. Building blocks of personality - structuralist notion.

Traits - Big 5 OCEAN

Openness to experience - How much of a risk taker


Conscientiousness - How responsible, organized


Extraversion - Socialness


Agreeableness - Kind, thoughtful, trusting


Neuroticism - Anxiety, worrier, insecure

Theory of Temperamentum

Black bile: Melancholy/sad


Yellow bile: Choleric/angry


Phlegm: Phlegmatic/lethargic


Blood: Sanguine/Cheerful

Temperament

Differences in emotional responding

Stable Temperament

When measured in womb: predict parent reports at 3 months, observations at age 4, and peer and teacher reports at 8 and beyond (though can also change, inhibited can and do sometimes become uninhibited)

Eysenrick

Differences in extraversion and introversion due to arousability - also thought to be a primary factor in temperament

Extraverts

Low arousability, so they seek external stimulation

Introverts

Higher arousability, so they avoid external stimulation.

Gray: Differences due to behavioral Inhibition system and behavioral activation system

Extraverts BAS > BIS


More sensitive to rewards than punishmentIntroverts


BIS > BAS


More sensitive to punishment than rewards (use positive punishment)

Big 5: genetic basis

Not just extraversion that’s heritable, actually all Big 5 traits appear to be heritable


Identical twins more similar than fraternal twins on all Big 5 dimensions

Attachement Theory

Bonds between infant and caregiver will influence the individual’s interaction with others throughout the lifespan

Avoidant

Dismissive of relationships

Secure

Comfortable with relationships, easily formed

Anxious ambivalent

Want relationships but insecure

Developmental focus

Personality will be determined by how child passes through early psychosexual stages. Fixations occur when under stress regress to problematic area.

Oral

Gains sensual gratification through mouth

Anal

Toilet training important


Adult may be compulsively neat and precise

Phallic

Oedipal or Electra complex (fixation on opposite sex parent) gives way to identification with same sex parent




Adult may not be comfortable in sex role

Unconscious motives

ego, id, superego

Ego

Decision making, reality, conscious

Id

Primitive, pleasure, unconscious

Superego

Moral, social, somewhat conscious

Conflicts of Id, Ego, Superego

- repression (repress thoughts)


- rationalization (creating excuses justify behavior)


- projection (attributing own state to another)


- displacement (diversion of state to another target)


- reaction formation (exaggerated opposite way) - sublimation (redirecting motive towards more desirable social ends)

Modeling

Children will imitate the behaviors (aggressive, sex-typed, etc) of adults or peers that they like or that they see rewarded

Locus of control

The extent to which believe influential forces lie within or outside the individual

Self-efficacy:

Beliefs about self’s ability and competence. Can be domain specific




High self-efficacy may lead to greater persistence on challenging tasks

Self-actualizing motive

The process by which people strive to fulfill their potential for personal growth through greater self-understanding (top of Maslow’s Pyramid)

Humanistic Theory on what shapes personality

Ideal self


Ought self


Actual self




Person is always trying to bring the actual self into congruence with the other two

Ideal self

Which one hopes to be

Ought self

Who one thinks one should be


Ideal-ought incongruity can lead to anxiety

Actual self

What one is right now


Ideal-actual incongruity can lead to depression

Situationism

The theory that situations determine behavior at any specific time point more than traits

Strong vs weak situations

Strong situations are those most likely to determine behavior (funeral, job interview, classroom, etc) whereas personality can predict behavior in a weak situation (parties, parks, dorm rooms, etc)

Interactionism

The theory that behavior is jointly determined by underlying dispositions and by situations

Social Psychology

The brain of the individual


Basic capacities


What makes individuals individual


Social learning, misinformation, theory of mind, role of attachment

Triplett (1898) discovered the social facilitation effect

Bikers faster if others are on the track


Did an experiment with fishing reels - the presence of others made the kids go faster

Pepsin found sometimes “Social inhibition”

Essay writing task, people were slower when others were around

Zajonc’s Solution

If easy or well-practiced task - facilitation


If hard or new task - inhibition

Conformity

Yielding to real or imagined social pressure


Asch’s line length study

Cohesiveness (Conformity)

Liking for a group increase conformity - normative

Normative influence (Conformity)

We want to be liked, will do what it takes to get along

Group size (Conformity)

Increasing numbers increases conformity

Informational influence

We want to be right, when situation is ambiguous, we look to others for right answer

People follow orders

Milligram's pain study


Hofling (1966) nurse study




Obedience dropped to less than 10% when another person said no. Probably through informational influence, seeing another person refuse made participant realize it was ok to disobey

Attitudes

the study of likes and dislikes

Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory

When our thoughts and actions are inconsistent, we become uncomfortable - feel dissonance

Bem’sself-perception theory

Wesay we like whatever follows our behavior




In hazing when people are really mean to you,you become MORE attached and loyal to them (“wowI went through so much to join this group…I must care about it A LOT”)

Aronson’s“harsh initiation” effect

We value groups we need to work hard to belongto, presumably because of consistency/self-perception processes




Women who went through the harsh initiationgroup wanted to come back so badly, while the women in the less harsh groupthought it was boring and were not planning on coming back.

Cialdini’s work on compliance (or, what to dowhen you want stuff, and why it works)

Foot in the door: large requests are grantedmore often if preceded by a small request (want to be consistent)




Door in the face: small requests are grantedmore often if first get a refusal of a large request (want to be liked)





Abnormal Psychology

What is “abnormal” differs across cultures andacross times in history (e.g. Great Depression, no one threw away anything –now we call that the disorder of “hoarding”) – the inability and fear to throwthings away is actually a disorder in this day and age

Two major types of mental disorders

Clinical disorders: generally more severe, canbe temporary or long-lasting, low level of functioning




Personality disorders: milder disorders,longstanding, high level of functioning (read about in your textbook)

DSM:Diagnostic manual (just updated to five)

Neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive:dysfunction of brain (Medical amnesia, Alzheimer’s, etc.)


Substance: alcoholism


Schizophreniaand psychoses


Mood(Depression, bipolar)


Anxiety(Phobias, panic disorder)


Trauma and stressor related (PTSD)


Dissociative: alterations in identity (fugue)


Genderdysphoria in adults and children


Childhood disorders (autism, ADHD)

Schizophrenia and the psychoses

"Split mind” – disturbances of thought that spillover to affect perceptual, social and emotional processes

Catatonic

Severe motor disturbance, usually characterized by muscular stupor, mutism or echolalia. Sit in contorted positions and rarely talk to you, but sometimes repeat what you say to them word for word.

Paranoid

Delusions of grandeur and/or persecution. Seems normal unless you discuss areas of paranoia. They are highly functioning, except for when you hit upon the particular domain in which they have the strong delusional beliefs

Disorganize

Severemaladaptive behavior (babbling, disorganized, thought and speech; loosenedassociations)

Undifferentiated

Doesnot fit categories above, may have multiple symptoms

Mood disorders

Emotional disturbances, may be positive ornegative

Depression

Mostprevalent disorder (Lifetime prevalence range around 15% major depression, 50%depressive disorder). Women more likely than men (but could be differences insymptomology, men higher in substance abuse/gambling, could beself-medication).

Bipolar

Experienceof both depression and mania(relatively rare mood disorder, 1%)

Symptoms of Depression

Negative emotional state


Slow cognitive processing, difficultyconcentrating


Fatigue or insomnia, decreased interest in foodand sex


Hallmark of depression is that the reason youhave a negative emotional state is because things that you previously found tobe rewarding no longer are.


Feelings of guilt, thoughts of suicide

Riskfactors for Mood Disorder

Genetic vulnerability, norepinphrine andserotonin disturbances in depression, larger genetic factor in bipolar than indepression


Situational and cognitive factors important fordepression


Loss of control/learned helplessness (Seligman’sdogs)

Idiographic Approaches

Person centered approaches to studying personality. Focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons. People are different.

Nomothetic Approaches

Approaches to studying personality that focus on how common characteristics vary form person to person.

Projective Measures

Explore the unconscious by having people describe or tell stories about ambiguous stimulus items. Ex. Rorschach inkblots

Objective Measures

Straightforward assessment of personality. Involve, self-report questionnaires or observer ratings. Measuring only what the raters believe or observe, make no pretense of uncovering hidden conflicts.

Situationism

Behaviors are determined more by situation

Interactionists

Behaviors are determined equally by situation and traits

Nonverbal behavior (body language)

The facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others.

Thin Slices of Behavior

People can make accurate judgements based on only a few seconds of observation.

Gait

How people walk, provides information about affective state.

Attributions

Are people's explanations for events or actions, including other people's behavior.

Personal attributions

Explanations that refer to people's internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts.

Situational Attributions

Explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or other people's actions.

Fundamental Attribution Error

In explaining other people's behavior, the tendency to overemphasize personality traits and underestimate situational factors.

Correspondance Bias

Tendency to expect behaviors of others to correspond with our own beliefs and personalities.

Borderline personality disorder

A personality disorder characterized by disturbances in identity, in affect, and in impulse control.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder marked by a lack of empathy and remorse

Autism

Deficits in social interaction, impaired communication

ADHD

Restlessness, inattentiveness and impulsivity

DBT

Combines behavioral and cognitive treatments. Used to treat borderline personality disorder.

Seasonal Effective Disorder

Occurs when days get shorter in winter

Generalized anxiety

Chronic high level of anxiety without a specific focus, “free floating"

Phobias

Specific fear of an object or action, irrationally exaggerated

Simple phobias

Animals, heights, water, closed spaces

Social phobias

fear of speaking or eating in public

Panic disorder

Recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety and terror

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Intrusive thoughts, sometimes with uncontrollable urges (rituals) to reduce anxiety

Panic

Anxiety sensitivity may reflect in increased arousal of central nervous system

Gender Identity Disorder / Gender Dysphoria

If and ONLY if gender identity causes significant distress or impairment of a crucial aspect of everyday life, it is considered a disorder

Biological Approaches

Electroconvulsive therapy - shock the brain


TMS - knockout specific functions


DBS - brain pacemaker

Pharmacological Approaches

Antipsychotics, antidepressants ,anti-anxiety

Psychoanalysis Insight therapy

Verbal interactions between therapist and client designed to enhance self knowledge and produce psychological change




Purpose to discover unconscious conflicts and motives

Client Centered/Rogerian Therapy

Purpose to lead to self awareness and self acceptance

Behavior Therapies

Focus on behavioral symptom, not on thought that leads to it.

Cognitive

Gentle change therapist: warm and non confrontational

Rational/Emotive

Therapist confronts irrational beliefs

Systematic desensitization

Reduces phobic or anxious responses through progressive counterconditioning

Flooding

Behavioral therapy in which face fear, assume will break exaggerated terror

Aversion therapy

Reduces troublesome behavior through aversive conditioning (shock or nausea)

Observational training

Relies on learning to enhance social skills, assertiveness, communication skills, etc.