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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Information dependence

reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, act.

Social information processing theory:

information from others is used to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate attitudes and behaviours.
• social information effects exert as much as objective reality

Effect dependence and the two complimentary processes

reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment.
• 2 complimentary processes: (1) the group has interest in how individual members think/act, because can attract goal attainment (2) members frequently desire approval of group


conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards/avoid punishment.


conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself.


conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underline the norm.


the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization.
• the primary means of communicating culture and values to new members
• socialization is apart of learning

Person-job fit

The match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of the job.

Person-Organization Fit

the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization.

Organizational identification

The extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent.
• direct effect on proximal socialization outcomes and distal outcomes

Stages of Socialization

1. anticipatory socialization: pre-entry; some formal process, like in school; informal – watching TV shows; not useful for the new member
2. Encounter: some expectations of day to day life; acceptable degree of conformity
3. Role Management: fine tuning/actively managing his/her role

Unrealistic Expectations

• higher expectations than reality
• eg. watching Grey’s Anatomy, and thinking that is an accurate representation of working in a hospital

Psychological contract

beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization.

Psychological contract breach

employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the psychological contract.

Realistic job previews

the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of the job to the applicants

• effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover, also improving job performance

Employee Orientation Programs

programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization.

Realistic Orientation Programs for Entry Stress (ROPES)

an orientation program that is designed to teach newcomers coping techniques to manage workplace stressors
• mostly last one to seven days
• important for socialization

Socialization Tactics

the manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition.
• institutionalized socialization: collective, formal, sequential, fixed serial and investiture
• individualized socialization: others


an experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a junior person guidance and special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or her during the early stages of his/her career.

Career Functions of Mentoring

• sponsorship: advantageous transfers/promotions
• exposure and visibility
• coaching and feedback
• developmental assignments

Psychosocial Functions of Mentoring

• role modeling
• providing acceptance and confirmation
• counseling

Formal Mentoring Programs

organizationally sponsored programs in which seasoned employees are recruited as mentors and matched with protégés

Women and Mentoring

• have difficulty finding mentors
• different concerns from male counterparts
• fear of perceived intimacy
• more critical to women’s careers than men’s

Race, Ethnicity and Mentoring

• mentees in cross ethnic mentorship report less assistance
• cross-race mentorship focuses on instrumental/career focuses on instrumental/career functions of mentoring

Developmental networks:

groups of people who take an active interest in and actions toward advancing a protégés career by providing developmental assistance.

Proactive socialization:

the process through which newcomers play an active role in their own socialization through the use of proactive socialization behaviours.
• request feedback and information seeking

Organizational culture

the shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an organization.
• way of life
• stable
• content of culture
• strong impact on both organization performance and member satisfaction


smaller cultures that develop within a larger organization culture that are based on differences in training, occupation, or departmental goals.

Lecture, Organizational culture

is the shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviours of its employees.
• Social knowledge
• Rules, norms, and values
• Shapes and reinforces certain employee attitudes and behaviours by creating a system of control over employees

The “Strong Culture” Concept, Strong culture:

an organizational culture with intense and persuasive belief values and assumptions.

Three points of strong culture

1. doesn’t have to be big
2. not necessarily blind conformity
3. greater success and effectiveness

Assets of Strong Culture

• coordination
• conflict resolution
• financial success (when the culture supports mission, strategy and goals)

Liabilities of Strong Cultures

• resistance to change
• culture clash
• pathology

Contributors to the Culture
the founder’s role, socialization

step 1: selecting employees

step 2: debasement and hazing
step 3: training “in the trenches”
step 4: reward and promotion
step 5: exposure to core culture
step 6: organizational folklore
step 7: role models

Diagnosing a Culture

• symbols
• rituals
• stories

Maintenance and Transmission of organizational culture

• Selection of employees
• Socialization of employees (stories, Rituals, Symbols, Language)
• Reinforcements and rewards

Organizational Culture & Communication

• Primary functions (Myers & Myers, 1982)
o Coordination and regulation of production activities
o Socialization
o Innovation

• Bad communication culture
o Culture of silence, “shoot the messenger ethos”


The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.

Effective communication

communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner.

Chain of Command

lines of authority and formal reporting relationships.

Downward communication

information that flows from the top of the organization to the bottom.
• hierarchical
• low levels of satisfaction

Issues with Downward Communication

o only downward
o messages can be confused – room for error
o slowly conveyed
o too formal, too restrictive

Upward communication

information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort.

Issues with Upward Communicaiton

• lots of issues
• lower satisfaction than downward communication
• fear of reprisal
• filters
• time

Deficiencies in the Chain of Command

• informal communication
• filtering


the tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission.
- upward filtering: employees worry the boss will use information against them - slowness

Horizontal communication:

• communication between disciplines
• through directors

limitations of Horiztontal communication:

o slow
o filtered
o unreliable
o only formal communication

Modified Horizontal communication

• through workers at the same level (eg. in Planning & Design, Administration would converse with Quality Assurance in Operations, because they are on the same “level”)


The constructive expression of disagreement or concern about work unit or organizational practice.
• horizontal or vertical
• can be organizational citizenship behaviour

Psychological safety

a shared belief that it is sage to take social risks.

Mum effect

the tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others.
• doesn’t always apply to subordinates

Grapevine and Characteristics:

an organization’s informal communication network.
• all types of communication
• grapevine hierarchies, organization grapevine, warehouse grapevine
• personal gossip and relevant information
• 75% of the grapevine is accurate information (textbook); 76% is true (lecture)

Hodgetts & Hegar (2008):

• Rumour = Interest X Ambiguity
• Can be used strategically
• Organizational blogs

Who Participates in the Grapevine?

• personality characteristics
• type of gossip or information
• physical location

Pros and Cons of the Grapevine

• informed about important manners of the organization
• can test reactions
• potent informal recruiting course


an unverified belief that is in general circulation
• spread the fastest when unambiguous


specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations/organizations.
• can be barriers to communication, both internal and external

Non-verbal communication:

the transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing.

Body language

non-verbal communication by means of a sender’s bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location.
• can be difficult to regulate

Office Décor and Arrangement

- more welcoming when: (1) tidy, (2) decorated with posters and plants, (3) the desk was against the wall (not separating the professor and the student)

Does Clothing Communicate?

- stereotyped meaning to clothing
- black raincoats v. beige – black is considered “lower middle class”
- personality traits of jean brands


• there are differences in gender communication
• men communicate to gain power, women do so to hold rapport

Tannen & Communication Differences - credit

• getting credit: men are more likely to boost themselves

Double Bind for Women

• Expectations for how an authority figure should speak is based upon men in authority.
• If a woman is direct (masculine) she appears pushy or bossy.
• If woman is indirect (feminine) she appears incompetent.

Male Communication Patterns

honest, direct, factual,

Women Communication Patterns

nurturing, indirect, respectful

Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures

• facial expressions
• gestures
• gaze
• touch

Social Conventions Across Cultures - Loud and Quiet Cultures

• “loud” cultures versus “quiet” cultures
• eg. in some cultures, being punctual is seen as very important, in others being late is just apart of the culture

Cultural context

the cultural information that surrounds a communication episode.
• high context: East Asia, Latin America, African, Arab: message is strongly influenced by the context it is told in
• low context: North America, Australia, Northern Europe (not France), Scandanavia: more literally

Differences in high/low cultures:

o people in high context culture want to know about you and the company you work for
o longer presentations in higher context
o age and seniority matter
o low context: like very detailed business contracts

National Culture Dimensions
Individualism-Collectivism (Hofstede, 1980; Globe studies)

• The degree to which a culture has a loosely knit social framework (individualism) or a tight social framework (collectivism)
• The degree to which individuals define themselves as unique entities vs as members of different social groups

Individualism and Collectivism and Decision Making, Fundamental attribution error

• Individualists more likely to attribute to the individual, Collectivists more likely to attribute to the situation

Conflict resolution, Individualism and Collectivism

• Collectivists prefer to go through a superior, Individualists prefer to confront and work it out
Endowment effect
• Collectivists less likely to show the endowment effect than individualists

Hall’s View of Culture
• “Culture is communication and communication is culture” (1959)
• Characterize cultures based on relationship between communication and reliance on the context in which communication occurs
• Low/high context addresses “how information is handled and how people interact and relate”

Cross-cultural communication challenges: Face

• Face = social self image
• Saving face = Behaviors or actions taken to protect one from shame, dishonor
• Low face concern: “Excuse me but it is 11 o’clock at night and the piano playing is disturbing my sleep. Can you please stop playing the piano so late at night?”
• High face concern (a comment made during a chance meeting in the hall): “Your daughter has started taking piano lessons, hasn’t she? I envy you, because you can be proud of her talent. You must be looking forward to her future as a pianist. I’m really impressed by her enthusiasm, every day she practices so hard, for hours and hours, until late at night.”

Cross–cultural communication challenges: Nonverbal communication

• Silence
• Interruptions
• Posture
• Facial gazing
• Touching
• Team composition
• Distance

Eastern and Western Expressions of Dominance

• Canadian male negotiators were more likely to use relaxed postures and express negative emotions
• Chinese male negotiators took up more space

Protestant Relational Ideology

• A cultural ideology in which relational and emotional concerns are considered inappropriate in work settings, and are therefore afforded less importance and attention than in social, non-work settings.

Information richness

the potential information – carrying capacity of a communication medium.

Computer-mediated communication (CMC)

forms of communication that rely on computer technology to facilitate information exchange.

Basic Principles of Effective Communication

• take the time
• be accepting of the other person
• do not confuse the person with the problem
• say what you feel


a condition in which a person’s words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message.
• listen actively

active listening:

a technique for improving the accuracy of information reception by paying close attention to the sender.

how to listen actively:

• watch your body language
• paraphrase what the speaker means
• show empathy
• ask questions
• wait out pauses
• give time and specific feedback

When in Rome… Principles for Cross-Cultural Communication

• assume differences until you know otherwise
• recognize differences within culture
• watch your language (and theirs)
o avoid jargon, clichés, etc

Two critical factors to perceived fairness of controversial policies

1: adequate explanation
2: the style in which its delivered

360-degree feedback

Performance appraisal that uses the input of superiors, employees, peers and clients or customers of the appraised individual.
• required behavioural competencies

Employee survey

an anonymous questionnaire that enables employees to state their candid opinions and attitudes about an organization and its practices.

Suggestion System

programs designed to enhance upward communication by soliciting ideas for improved work operations from employees.

Macro Level Communication

• more holistic
• sending and receiving messages


connects people to each other


connects people through sharing knowledge


uses knowledge to engage and persuade.

Primary functions (Neher, 1997)

• Compliance-gaining
• Leading, motivating, influencing
• Sense-making (not just the messages, but the behaviours, norms, etc)
• Problem solving and decision making
• Conflict management, negotiation, bargaining

Communication Context

• A set of circumstances or a situation
• Affects your choice of the most appropriate channels and codes
o Role and number of people
o Degree of formality or intimacy

Contemporary Media Richness Model

- degree of synchronization versus the presence of nonverbal and and paraverbal cues

- memo/letter, email, chat, videoconference, teleconference, face to face

Groups using Computer Mediated Communication, Pros and Cons


• Take more time (d=-1.71)
• Make less effective decisions (d=-.40)
• Have less satisfied members (d=-.52)


• Can generate more ideas

• Have members less inhibited by status cues

CMC Group Effectiveness: Moderators

• Time constraint: Unlimited time CMC groups performed equally well as face-to-face groups
• Anonymity: Anonymous CMC groups were equally effective as face-to-face groups

Downsides of CMC in negotiation

On email, we are more likely than in face-to-face negotiations to:
• Use aggressive strategies
• Focus more on message content than message delivery (tone, affect, etiquette)
• Attribute malevolent motives to other
• Take risks
Schmoozing reduces these tendencies

Tannen & Communication Differences, confidence

• confidence and boasting: more likely to be men
• women are more likely to ask questions

Tannen & Communication Differences, apologies,

• apologies: women apologize to build rapport, transition, men see apologies as a weakness, disorganization and incompetence

Tannen & Communication Differences, feedback

• feedback: women buffer; men are blunt

Tannen & Communication Differences, compliments

• compliments: women known to say “good job” even if it’s not the best, if asked about their opinion; men see it as an actual critique.

Tannen & Communication Differences, ritual opposition

• ritual opposition: women see it as a personal attack, bad idea or mistake; boys “play fight”, play Devil’s advocate, used not to challenge but rather to explore possibilities

Tannen & Communication Differences, managing up and down

• managing up and down: women think the most important thing is to do a good job, men is about who you know

Tannen & Communication Differences, giving orders direct,

• giving orders: direct men tend to dictate orders, not bossy or offensive; women misinterpret direct orders as impoliteness and overbearing

Tannen & Communication Differences, giving orders indirect

• giving orders: indirect: women use strategies not to appear bossy, “could we do this…”; men misinterpret indirect approach as: not being managerial and it’s easier to say “NO”