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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

general properties of language

-fundamentally social

-uniquely human

-nature AND nurture

bottom-up elements of language

phonemes and morphemes

top-down elements

semantics: meaning or 'whole word' level

syntax and grammar: structure or rules


ex. McGurk effect (ba vs. va)

theories of acquisition

1. skinner-- behaviorist based on operant conditioning

2. chomsky-- 'universal grammar' or 'language acquisition device' -- more based on innate capacity to construct sentences with words and rules they've learned

critical period theory

certain time during which language acquisition is possible/easiest; ex. Genie who was deprived

language-specific development

native language: you get better at distinguishing between sounds as you age

non-native: get worse!

broca's aphasia

damage to left frontal cortex

'expressive aphasia'

can't produce speech

Wernicke's aphasia

L temporal and parietal lobe damage

'receptive aphasia'

speak quickly but meaningless 'word salad'

Global Theory of Intelligence

Sternberg's g: mechanical, verbal, numerical, spatial

Catell's crystallized vs fluid

crystallized- knowledge and experiences

fluid- creativity, problem-solving, insight

Sternberg's Triarchic

analytical, practical, creative

Gardner's theory of multiple

a ton of intelligences!

Pros and Cons of IQ test

bell curve makes it a normal distribution

- easier to understand individual differences

- applicable to broad differences


- doesn't address cultural barriers


on scale from 0-1, how much is genetic vs environmentally caused

influential factors on intelligence



-nutrition/chemical hazards

stereotype threat

individual who has been negatively stereotyped, perceives this stereotype and gets anxiety, lowering his performance and fulfilling the stereotype

entity theory vs. incremenetal

fixed intelligence or variable

How to teach mindsets of entity theory or incremental

all about feedback

types of concepts

superordinate (most general), basic, subordinate (detailed)

central tendency

associate with most 'average' member


which one most closely fulfills the characteristics (a bird flies)

spreading activation

one object activates thoughts about related objects

types of heuristics

availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic, and anchoring and adjusting

availability heuristic

whichever info is more available, based on

-frequency of processing

-cues of associations

-personal experiences

-anecdotes >> stats

representativeness heuristic

similarity to prototype

types of fallacies associated with representativeness heuristics

basal rate fallacy-- even though you know it's more probable that the individual is catholic, not satanic

conjunction fallacy-- more bank tellers than more specific-- want to give specific characteristics that are less likely than the general

anchoring and adjusting heuristic

major gaps in knowledge-- we use environmental cues (like what the question is asking) to estimate values

humans are risk-averse for ... and risk-seeking for

averse for gains, seeking for losses

prospect theory

when making decisions, we care more about the value of the loss/gain rather than the final outcome

regulatory focus theory

either promotion focused or prevention focused people

avoid heuristic problems by...

-slow down



-be more analytical

nurture's revenge in nature vs. nurture

epigenetic modifications

cells that fire together

wire together!

piaget's stage theory of dev't

1) sensorimotor (0-2)

2) preoperational (2-6/7)

3) concrete operational (7-11)

4) formal operational (11+)

sensorimotor stage

piaget's stage theory

-no object permanence (0-6mo)

-rudimentary object permanence

cognitive development: language, symbolic thinking, etc.

motor development: perception into action

preoperational stage

-egocentrism (sees the same thing)

- failure of theory of mind (thinks the same thing)

-failed conservation

concrete operational stage

yes to theory of mind

can understand conservation

- identity

- reversability

- compensation

formal operational stage

can understand conservation without having the item present

history of social/moral development

initially ,believed it was need for nourishment but monkey experiment proved that there was need beyond that

also need for interaction (still face expt)

four forms of attachment

1) secure

2) avoidant

3) ambivalent

4) disorganizaed

issues with attachment studies

-can't manipulate styles


-culture differences

Piaget's model for moral development


- no morality, regulated by external consequences

moral realism

-rigid rules, absolute authority

-moral severity about consequences, not intentions

morality of cooperation

- moral rules can change

-rules facilitate cooperation

Kohlberg's Model for moral development


-punishment, obedience, hedonism


-good intentions, social order


-social contracts, universal ethics, cosmic orientation

Criticism of Kohlberg

1. feminist critique-- Kohlberg thinks that morality == justice but morality also entails avoidance of harm, care, etc.

2. social institution: moral reasoning underlies decisions, but sometimes is gut decision (ex. incest)

3. only relevant to WEIRD (western educated industrial reach democracies) and made by liberals

stages for development to motivation

1. physiological

2. safety

3. love

4. esteem

5. self-actualization


drive--> behavior--> need


most 'basic' drives

often unconscious responses to environment

ex. temperature, energy

regulatory drives

more conscious than homeostasis

more strategic behaviors

still physiological and evolutionarily adaptive

ex. third, hunger, danger reduction

non-regulatory drives

not needed for survival but still good for evolution

ex. reproduction, social approval, education

role of dopamine in motivation

dopamine increases WANTING but doesn't affect pleasure or liking


how intensely we pursue a goal

- desire




feelings of euphoria


external rewards or punishments (think operant conditioning)

downside of incentives

"overjustification effects"

-children drawing don't get as motivated if they know incentives will be rewarded to them

relationship between emotions and incentives

positive reinforcement- happy

negative reinforcement- peace

positive punishment- fear, anxiety

negative punishment- sad

presence of others--> increased drive-->

social facilitation or social interference

Yerkes-Dodson Law

optimal arousal for highest performance level, less for difficult tasks and more needed for easy tasks

Common sense theory

stimulus-- perception-- emotion-- arousal

James-Lange theory


Cannon-Bard theory

stimulus-- perception-----arousal AND emotion simultaneously

schachter theroy



attribution of arousal experiment

if you know you're getting the drug and will experience side effects, then compensate and downplay emotional effect

if you don't know, then you attribute it to emotion and then experience it strongly

shaky bridge experiment

proves schachter's theory that there is a cognitive and physiological component that interact

evidence for James-Lange

(arousal before emotion)

-anger and fear--- hot/flushed and cold/clammy reactions

-argues for primacy of arousal


motivations and emotions are components of 'self-regulation'

drives are response to needs signaled by internal and external stimuli

emotions function as 'feedback' for effective self-regulation


internal and external causes

'hydraulic' model --> aggression build up

unpleasant environments

cognitive bias hypothesis:

hostile attribution bias

tendency to see ambiguous actions as intentionally hostile

hostile perception bias

ambiguous actions seen as generally hostile

hostile expectation bias

expect aggression in response to your behavior

stress consequences

sometimes health (yerkes-dodson law) but can have psychological and physiological consequences

selye's general adaption syndrome

alarm reaction -- stage of resistance -- stage of exhaustion

psychological effects of stress

1) learned helplessness (ex. dogs)

2) cortisol release (fats breakdown, increased blood flow, behavioral responsiveness increases)

too much can lead to elevated BP, damaged tissues, immunosuppression

Type A vs Type B

individual differences- responses to stress and aggression

how to combat stress and aggression

problem-focused coping: adjust lifestyle, change environment

emotion-focused: exercise, cognitive reappraisal, relaxation, social support, stress inoculation

three approaches to personality

psychodynamic: sum of persons conscious and unconscious motivations

trait: personality is the sum of a person's various traits

social cognitive: personality is a mix of internal factors interacting with situational characteristics

unconscious and defense mechs

who we 'really' are

defense mechanisms:

- repression

- reaction formation

- projection

- sublimation


- denial

how to access the unconscious

therapeutic methods-- hypnosis and dreams analysis

testing-- inkblot tests, thematic appreception (TAT) test

trait approaches

first, types (extremes, like Myers Briggs), then traits that occur more within a spectrum

traits are normally distributed

Eysenck traits

narrowed to 16 with 6 larger traits

-extra and introversion, neuroticism, emotional stability, psychoticism, self-control

Big 5 to personality






issues with trait approach

little cross-situational consistency

social cognitive approach

person + situation

if, then

two types of personality consistency

type 1: big 5, consistency over time but not over situations

type 2: consistency over situations, high personality coefficient

pro-social animals

putting the goals of others or the group ahead of one's own

but pro-social doesn't necessarily equate with being moral

foundations of pro-social behavior

fairness (equity and equality)

ex. monkeys should that there is some innate demand for fairness


the standard model or pattern of behaviors

types of influence

normative influence-- desire to conform to avoid rejection or exclusion

informational influence-- desire to conform because they'er assumed to have some informational value (they see something I don't)

autokinetic effect

opinions of single people tended to converge over time to form one single opinion

passed on to new members of group

standby effect and factors involved

example of Kitty Genovese

-situational ambiguity

-diffusion of responsibility


-costs and benefits


our assessment of the world around us


our assessments of the people around us


our assessments of people belonging to groups prior to getting to know them as individuals

where do attitudes come from?


modeling others

mere exposure

cognitive dissonance

choice justification

cognitive dissonance

re-evaluating attitudes in light of behavior

choice justification

•Choosingto write an attitude-incongruent essay can change attitudes; being required towrite one does not

why do we have attitudes?

-help us navigate the world

-provide us with evaluative context

fundamental attribution erros

perceive self as difficult situation, while others are unstable, easily upset

why the self vs. other bias?

-self enhancement bias

- knowledge across situations

-visual orientation

-observer goals and motivations

difference bewteen individualist cultures and collectivist cultures

US that is self-focused in attitudes while Chine is interdependent, familial based

downside of dispositional attributions

upside: frees up cognitive space, faster processing but can lead to prejudice


negative associations can be tied to categories of individuals

-can work unconsciously or implicitly

- assessed using Implicit Association Test (IAT)

Good Samaritan Story

Seminarians interviewed about different topics, changes in personality and how much time they have to get somewhere


only the amount of time impacts whether or not they stop to help stranger

barriers to helping

1. noticing

2. interpreting as emergency

3. taking responsibility

4. deciding how to help

5. providing help

psychological disorders

differentiating between 'weird' and abnormal

- mostly comes down to cultural definitions

-must impair functionality or well-being

discreepancy in how we treat mental illnesses due to...


institutionalization in US trends

prison rate going up while mental hospital rate going down drastically

DSM stages

I-- 1952

II-- Freudian, psychodynamic, cause-based

III- first time with symptoms


5- most recent w

hat's new in DSM 5?

no more 5 axis approach; disorders are on spectrum

asperger's not part of autism spectrum

gender identity is now

gender dysphoria

Diathesis stress model for cause of mental illness

spectrum where high amount of stress and high predisposition equate to mental illness

neurodevelopmental disorders

related to specific deficits that inhibit ability to function

can be intellectual, attentional, motor-based

biological process disorders

1. eating disorders

2. elimination disorders

3. sleep-wake

4. sexual

5. somatic

substance-related disorders

related to compulsive desire to obtain rewarding stimulus

physical or experiential (gambling)

emotional disorder breakdown

3 subtypes: depression bipolar and anxiety

depressio nsymptoms

anhedonia, lack of motivation, general negativity

bipolar disorder

depression and mania alternating

anxiety disorders

intense or irrational feelings ox anxiety or fear that inhibit function

overwhelming foreboding of a terrible future threat


certain tasks appear 'magical'

rauma-related siroders


like PTSD, adjustment, reactive attachment

disability related to experience of trauma

dissociative disorders

characterized by experience of losing one's identity or part of one's self

personality disorders

experiences as personality characteristic rather than acute illnesses

Cluster A: odd, eccentric cluster

B: dramatic, emotional, erratic

C: anxious, fearful


concept of mental illness is new

earliest forms began with Freud

Freu'ds form of treatment


mental illness= unconscious imbalance arising from arrested development

often comes from failure of repression (repression is good when it works)

therapy aimed at uncovering unconscious conflicts to resolve them and achieve balance

revisions to psychodynamic approach (originally Freud)

-not about psychosexual anymore

-instead focus on social and interpersonal experiences

early 20th century approaches

arose with institutionalization of mental illness

ex. behaviorist approaches



humanistic response

-behaviorism fails to recognize the inherent agency in each individual c

client-centered therapy

psychological disturbance the result of incongruence between 'ideal self' and 'real self'

self-discrepancy theory

incongruence between ideal self, ought self, and actual self

ideal actual discrepancy causes

dejection, sadness

ought actual discrepancy causes

fear, anxiety, etc.

cognitive behavioral theories

behaviorist approaches taking advantage of cognitive capacities

focuses on interplay between behaviors, beliefs and emotions

cognitive behavioral approaches

-exposure therapies for anxiety or compulsive disorders (systematic desensitization, flooding)

-cognitive therapies for depression (rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy)

-behavioral approaches for conduct or substance disorders (aversion therapy, token economies)

-exposure therapies for trauma-related disorders


work through changing chemistry

benefits but challenges of compliance and can have perverse effects

treating schizo

types of symptoms- positive and negative whether behavior is added or subtracted

positive symptoms of schizo

agitation, delusions, hallucinations

negative symptoms of schizo

lack of interest in surroundings

emotional withdrawal

flat effect


trial & error

based on dopamine hypothesis

dopamine hypothesis support- positive symptoms

amphetamines (agonists) produce schizo symptoms

responsive to traditional antipsychotics

excess dopamine in subcortical projections

dopamine hypothesis no support-- negative symptoms

traditional antipsychotics don't help

too little dopamine

glutamate hypothesis-- glutamate regulates dopamine

best approach to disorders is a