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72 Cards in this Set

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Symptoms of Stress

Physical - unusual fatigue, sleeping problems, frequent colds, chest pains, nausea.


Behavior - pacing, eating too much, crying a lot, smoking or drinking more than usual, physically striking out at others.


Emotional - anxiety, depression, fear, irritability, anger frustration


Mental - problems in concentration and memory issues, decision making, lose their sense of humor

Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)

a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration and moments in which people seem to "relive" the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following event

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems lasting for more than a month

Catastrophe

an unpredictable, large scale event that creates tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat

Hassles

the daily annoyances of everyday life

Life Events

the stress that is in ordinary life, not only bad things like job loss, but also good things like starting college. They require a person to change that can be stressful - adjustment changes are at the core of stress

Eustress

the effect of positive events or the good amount of stress that people need to promote health and wellbeing, the kind of stress you need

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)

a scale that measures the stress you have in your life (because of major events) over a one year period

College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS)

a test that measure the amount of stress in a college student's life (because of major life events) over a one year period of time

Milgram Experiment

An experiment on obedience, participants were presented with a control panel and instructed to give electric shocks to another person, the "learner," when he gave the wrong answer. This shows that a person will go against natural behavior if instructed to do so by authority

Compliance

changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change

Obedience

changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure



Foot in the Door technique

(1st way to gain compliance) asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment


ex. asked to watch house (small) and then water plants (bigger)

Door in the Face technique

(2nd way to gain compliance) asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment


ex. asked to take care of dog and cat (refused) and then asked to water plants (smaller --> accepted)

Lowball technique

(3rd way to gain compliance) getting a commitment from a person then raising the cost of that commitment


ex. asked to do something and find out more work is actually involved

That's not all technique

(4th way to gain compliance) a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision

Groupthink

kind of thinking that occurs when people place more important on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned

Social Psychology

the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of others

Social influence

the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual

Social cognition

the mental processes people use to make sense of the social world around them

Social interaction

the good and bad aspects of people relating to others

Zimbardo Prison Experiment

experiment in which men were randomly assigned position of guard or prisoner. Took it too far because they made it so realistic.

Asch Experiment

study on conformity, one person said the wrong answer and everyone followed and gave wrong answer


Experiment took place during 1950s - a time of segregation and conformity. Collectivist cultures ex: Japan, Hong Kong, Zimbabwe are likely to engage in conformity

Personality

special way in which a person thinks, acts, and feels throughout life (not like character, which is personal values). Difficult to measure, especially scientifically

Psychodynamic (Freud) Perspective

the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality. This perspective also heavily focuses on biological causes of personality differences.

Behaviorist Perspective

Based on the theories of learning, effect of the environment of behavior

Humanistic Perspective

focuses on the role of each person's conscious life experiences and choices in their personality development



Trait Perspective

more concerted with the end result - the characteristics themselves. Although some trait theorists assume that traits are biologically determined, others make no such assumption

Temperament

the enduring characteristics with which each person is born, based on one's biology, genetic and parental influence. Forms the basis on which personality is formed (PERSONALITY BUILT ON THIS)

Freud

focused a lot on the unconscious behavior and how our actions every day play a big role in who we are and what we chose to say. Practiced during Victorian Age (time of sexual repression, enjoyment is considered a sin) Patients were expected to remain pure - led to obsession with sexual explanations for abnormal behavior.

Id

(Part of Iceberg picture) makes demands and is present at birth, completely unconscious. It is all about satisfying pleasure. Most primitive part of the personality. Pleasure drive.

Pleasure Principle

Principle by which the id functions, the immediate satisfaction of needs without regards for the consequences. Pleasure drives the need to seek out pleasurable sensations.

unconscious

level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness

Ego

part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical

Reality principle

principle by which the ego functions, the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result

Conscious

contact with the outside world. Level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions. The ego functions on a this level.

Super Ego

moral center, least part of the personality that gets developed

Preconscious

material right under the surface of awareness. The level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious

Oral Stage

(1st stage of personality development) from birth to 1/1.5 years,


Focus of pleasure, oral activities and pleasure principle is mouth


conflict is weaning


fixation - weaned too soon might go out and speak other pleasure, weaned too late.


Difficulties in this stage will affect: ability to form interpersonal relationship, basic feelings about the world, tendency to use oral form of aggression, optimism/pessimism, tendency to take charge or be passive

Anal Stage

from 1.5-3 years old. erogenous zone - bowel and bladder control


conflict - toilet training. Fixation - bedwetting


Anal Expulsive personality - person who is messy, destructive, and hostile, parents relaxed


Anal Repulsive personality - person who is neat, fussy, stingy and stubborn, parents strict about toilet training


Difficulties will affect: sense of competence and control, stubborness, neat or messy, punctuality or tardiness

Phallic Stage

3-6 years old, erogenous zone - genitals. Conflict - awakening sexual feelings.


Oedipus/Electra complex - child has sexual attraction to opposite gender parent and jealousy of same sex parent. learns to relate to same sex parent


Identification-defense mechanism, try to be like someone else to deal with anxiety.


Difficulties affect: morals, pride/humility

Latency Stage

6-puberty. sexual feelings are repressed while child develops in other ways. Focus is social skills. Conflict - school play, same sex friendships


difficulties affect: ability to get along with others

Genital Stage

puberty-death. sexual behavior, reawakening of sexual feelings with appropriate targets


conflict - sexual relationships with a partner


Difficulties will affect: immature love or indiscriminate hate, uncontrollable work/inability to work

Earlier Perceptions of Mental Illness

Ancient times - believed they were possessed by evil spirits, cut into skull to release demons


Hippocrates - imbalance of fluids/humors


Middle Ages - spirit psossesion, through exorcism


Renaissance - demon inside them, killed because they are witches

Psychological Disorders

any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or harms their ability to function in their everyday lives


Statistical definition of Abnormal Behavior

frequently occurring behavior is normal and rare behavior is abnormal



Social Norm Deviance (Abnormal Behavior)

if something goes against the norms of the society in which a person lives. This a problem when dealing with other cultures because diff cultures = diff norms.


situational context - social ore environmental setting of a person's behavior

Subjective discomfort (abnormal behavior)

sign of abnormal behavior when a person experiences a great deal of subjective discomfort-emotional distress, while doing a certain behavior. (all behavior considered abnormal doe snot always cause discomfort)

Inability to function normally (abnormal behavior)

the behavior does not allow a person to fit into society.


Maladaptive = anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life

Criteria for Abnormal Behavior

Maladaptive - inability to function normally (does it cause harm to others? is it maladaptive?)


rare behavior (is it unusual?)


hamper your life, going against norms of society (does it go against norms?)


subjective discomfort (does it cause a lot of discomfort?)

Psychopathology

study of psychiatric disorders

Biological Model

model of explaining behavior as caused by biological changes in chemical, structural, or genetic system of the body (anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia are caused by chemical imbalances, genetic problems, brain damage, or combo of some)

Cognitive Model

abnormal behavior happens because the person has irrational beliefs and illogical pattern of thought

Behavior approach

abnormal behavior was learned

Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic approach

abnormal behavior stems from repressed conflicts and urges that are fighting

culture-bound syndromes

disorders found only in a particular culture. This happened to some cultures so they all act this way

amok

happens when a person gets insulted or slighted which followed by a period of brooding and then a violent or aggressive outburst, during which the person may attack others and may not remember doing so. Term comes from southeast Asia

Postpartum Psychoanalysis

a rar and sever form of depression that occurs in women just after giving birth and includes delusional thinking and hallucinations

Free Association

psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk abut anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations


Latent Content

the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams

manifest content

the actual content of one's dreams

psychoanalysis

an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts

behaviorist therapy

focus on changing bad behavior, very specific

humanistic therapy

focus on the conscious mind and subjective experiences to help clients gain insight

Cognitive therapy

teaching the client how to rethink, teaching them that some of their thinking doesn't make sense



group therapy

in a group with people who have similar problems, the other people support you. it is comforting to know that other people are going through the same thing

Psychotherapy

therapy for mental disorders in which a person with problems talks with a psychological professional

Insight therapy

therapist tries to get the patient to understand/gain insight into why they are doing certain behavior.

Action therapy

therapist tries to change the patient's behavior rather than providing insight into the reasons for the behavior. The main goal is to change disorders or inappropriate behavior directly. Targeted at specific behavior. Active, not passive.



Biomedical Therapy

therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms. This method uses medications and sometimes shock treatment. It only gets rid of symptoms. Ex. anxiety

transference

in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist

resistance

when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, patient either changes the topic or becomes silent. Therapist analyzes the topic that makes the patient silent or reluctant to talk.