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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges

distant stress

happened in the past, still causes stress, ex. car accident

no current impact on immunity

chronic stress

has no end in sight, ex. long term illness

clear, negative impact on immunity

acute stress

has a known end, ex. a cold or surgery

more susceptible to viral, but not bacterial infections

stress response

the pattern of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to demands that exceed a person's resources

body's reaction to stress

increased heart rate and blood pressure, increase catecholamine secretion by adrenals, increase respiration, blood pressure, increase respiration, blood is diverted to muscle tissues, decrease digestion, eyes dilate

other psychological factors

hassles and uplifts (small day to day things), hassles have more of an effect than uplifts

social connections help because of emotional support

keeping a journal can boost your immune system


sympathetic nervous system

general adaptation syndrome

phases one-alarm reaction

phase two-resistance

phase three exaustion


a compliance with the request due to the perception that the requestor has a legitimate right to take the request or at least has the appearance of legitimacy


compliance to rules and laws, ex. traffic laws

milgram study

authoritative shock treatment, order given of a shock to another person given just because they were told to

milgram obedience

feeling obligated towards an authoritative person

ethical issues with milgram study

reduced freedom of choice, stress of participants, deception and self knowledge


a unique and relatively stable way in which people think, feel, and behave


value judgements made about a persons moral and ethical behavior


the enduring characteristics with which each person is born


the animal instinctual part of your unconscious, we all want food, sleep, and sex


part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality

mostly conscious, rational, and logical

super ego

moral center, do the right thing

two main human drives

basic biological drives

and libido


sexual urges

oral stage

id dominates

zone: mouth

have to become independent

stuck: clingy and high maintenance

anal stage

ego develops

zone: anus

physical control

stuck: anal retentive (stingy) or repulsive (messy)

phallic stage

super ego develops

zone: penis

stuck: implications for conscious and gender identity

latency stage

no zone

continued progress

genital stage

zone: genitals

develop mature sexual intimacy

issues with psychodynamic theory

hard to prove or disapprove

unrepresentative sample

trait approach/lexical hypothesis

if a concept is important there is a word for it

big five







anxiety, anger, or depression

emtionally reactive

minor frustrations are seen as difficult

ordinary situations are seen as threatening


enjoy being with people

full of energy

often feel positive emotions



appreciative of art

sensitive to beauty

aware of feelings

individuals and nonconforming


value getting along with others




helpful and willing to comprimise

believe people are honest


avoid trouble

achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning

regarded by others as intelligent and reliable

problems with the big five

trait-situation interaction

descriptive but not explanatory

does not measure all traits

ex. humor, masculinity, femininity, thriftiness


negative thoughts that come with disorders

criteria for being abnormal

infrequent (statistically rare)

deviant (violates social norms)

maladaptive (harmful)

unjustifiable (no explanation)

3 negative consequences (thee Ds)





most who are diagnosed with one disorder often meet criteria for one or more others

pros of DSM

diagnosis accurate/consistent

can help determine type of therapy needed

cons of DSM

unrealistic to pigeon hole

categorization carries a price

labeling bias

assume everything is because of disorder

Rosenhan study

sane in insane places

normal people check into mental hospital because they "hear voices" then aren't let out because workers think they're crazy


puts symptoms into biological and social context


disorders of cognition, social isolation, hallucinations, disturbances of affect

positive symptoms present, negative symptoms absent

subtypes: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated

biological predisposition + psychological social stress that triggers

anxiety disorders

umbrella term for many disorders


persistent and irrational fear of an object, activity, or situation

classical conditioning can explain phobias (ex. little albert)


low mood, no manic episode


at least one manic episode

major depressive disorder

lifetime incidence: 20% female, 12% male

50% suicide

diathesis-stress model

genetic predisposition= diathesis

stress= emotional stress

if you have both you're more likely to have it


drilling a hole in a skull to release demons

affective because of cognitive dissonance, regression of mean, and placebo effect

history of therapies

trephining to asylums to pathology model

pathology model- two underlying causes

somatogenic- biological/organic

psycholgenic- psychological

2 types of therapies

1. based primarily in psychological theory and techniques

2. uses medical intervention to bring symptoms under control

empirical validation

deny the claim

psychotherapy doesn't work

conduct experiments

therapy has some evidence to suggest that it works better than another therapy or better than doing nothing

schizophrenia treatment

medical intervention to reduce dopamine levels

phobias treatment

behavioral therapies and exposure therapies

systematic desensitization (relaxation techniques and gradual exposure) and flooding (patient in feared situation all at once)

depression treatment

drug therapy, psychotherapy

electroconvulsive therapy


psychodynamics- based on work of fraud, primary focus on unconscious mind

behavioral and social cognitive views- focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior; based on the theories of learning

humanistic- focuses on conscious life experiences and choices

trait- focuses on characteristics themselves not roots of personality


the science of behavior and mental processes

2 roots of psychology

nurture vs nature

combination of nature (biological) and nurture (mothers care that helps us grow)

independent variable

experimenter manipulates

dependent variable

variable that researchers feel will be affected by the variable

control variables

the group/variable for which one level of the IV involves and absences of variable of interest


correlation= causation

anatomy of a neuron

dendrites little legs on top of cell body


small circle inside of cell body

cell body

main part of neuron

axon helix

base of cell body


long neural part

collateral branches

branches off from axon helix

terminal buttons

tiny branches off

action potential

calcium rushing in

potassium rushing out


the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant

positive reinforcement

giving someone a reward for doing a good job

negative reinforcement

taking away something because you did the right thing, like when your car stops beeping because you buckled your seat belt

negative punishment

taking something away to make an event less likley to occur;ex. pressing a bar to ease the pain


getting sensory information from the outside enviroment


mental organization and interpretation of sensory information

long-term memory capacity


short-term memory capacity

four items or less

sensory memory capacity

one-third of a second

sensory duration

snapshots and frames

short-term memory duration

seven items plus or minus two

long-term memory duration



head to tail

lower part of body grows later than head


near to far

extremities grow later than head, chest,and trunk

attachment theory

babies want comfort of their mother more than they need their biological urges

cognitive dissonance

when one's behavior and their moral beliefs don't match; they make a change to one or the other to make them match inside their heads

bystander effect

the amount of people standing by during a crime determines if anythings going to be done about it. Unless a responsibility is placed on someone directly then no one will get help.