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92 Cards in this Set

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stress

process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges

distant stress

happened in the past, still causes stress, ex. car accident


no current impact on immunity

chronic stress

has no end in sight, ex. long term illness


clear, negative impact on immunity

acute stress

has a known end, ex. a cold or surgery


more susceptible to viral, but not bacterial infections

stress response

the pattern of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to demands that exceed a person's resources

body's reaction to stress

increased heart rate and blood pressure, increase catecholamine secretion by adrenals, increase respiration, blood pressure, increase respiration, blood is diverted to muscle tissues, decrease digestion, eyes dilate

other psychological factors

hassles and uplifts (small day to day things), hassles have more of an effect than uplifts


social connections help because of emotional support


keeping a journal can boost your immune system

fight/flight

sympathetic nervous system

general adaptation syndrome

phases one-alarm reaction


phase two-resistance


phase three exaustion

obedience

a compliance with the request due to the perception that the requestor has a legitimate right to take the request or at least has the appearance of legitimacy

conformity

compliance to rules and laws, ex. traffic laws

milgram study

authoritative shock treatment, order given of a shock to another person given just because they were told to

milgram obedience

feeling obligated towards an authoritative person

ethical issues with milgram study

reduced freedom of choice, stress of participants, deception and self knowledge

personality

a unique and relatively stable way in which people think, feel, and behave

character

value judgements made about a persons moral and ethical behavior

temperament

the enduring characteristics with which each person is born

id

the animal instinctual part of your unconscious, we all want food, sleep, and sex

ego

part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality


mostly conscious, rational, and logical

super ego

moral center, do the right thing

two main human drives

basic biological drives


and libido

eros

sexual urges

oral stage

id dominates

zone: mouth


have to become independent


stuck: clingy and high maintenance




anal stage

ego develops


zone: anus


physical control


stuck: anal retentive (stingy) or repulsive (messy)



phallic stage

super ego develops


zone: penis


stuck: implications for conscious and gender identity

latency stage

no zone


continued progress

genital stage

zone: genitals


develop mature sexual intimacy

issues with psychodynamic theory

hard to prove or disapprove


unrepresentative sample

trait approach/lexical hypothesis

if a concept is important there is a word for it

big five

neuroticism


extraversion


openness


agreeableness


conscientiousness

neuroticism

anxiety, anger, or depression


emtionally reactive


minor frustrations are seen as difficult


ordinary situations are seen as threatening

extraversion

enjoy being with people


full of energy


often feel positive emotions



openness

curious


appreciative of art


sensitive to beauty


aware of feelings


individuals and nonconforming



agreeableness

value getting along with others


considerate


friendly


generous


helpful and willing to comprimise


believe people are honest

conscientiousness

avoid trouble


achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning


regarded by others as intelligent and reliable



problems with the big five

trait-situation interaction


descriptive but not explanatory


does not measure all traits


ex. humor, masculinity, femininity, thriftiness

stigma

negative thoughts that come with disorders

criteria for being abnormal

infrequent (statistically rare)


deviant (violates social norms)


maladaptive (harmful)


unjustifiable (no explanation)

3 negative consequences (thee Ds)

distress


disfunction


danger

comorbidity

most who are diagnosed with one disorder often meet criteria for one or more others

pros of DSM

diagnosis accurate/consistent


can help determine type of therapy needed

cons of DSM

unrealistic to pigeon hole


categorization carries a price



labeling bias

assume everything is because of disorder

Rosenhan study

sane in insane places


normal people check into mental hospital because they "hear voices" then aren't let out because workers think they're crazy

mulitaxial

puts symptoms into biological and social context

schizophrenia

disorders of cognition, social isolation, hallucinations, disturbances of affect


positive symptoms present, negative symptoms absent


subtypes: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated


biological predisposition + psychological social stress that triggers

anxiety disorders

umbrella term for many disorders



phobia

persistent and irrational fear of an object, activity, or situation


classical conditioning can explain phobias (ex. little albert)

unipolar

low mood, no manic episode

bipolar

at least one manic episode

major depressive disorder

lifetime incidence: 20% female, 12% male


50% suicide

diathesis-stress model

genetic predisposition= diathesis


stress= emotional stress


if you have both you're more likely to have it

trephining

drilling a hole in a skull to release demons


affective because of cognitive dissonance, regression of mean, and placebo effect

history of therapies

trephining to asylums to pathology model

pathology model- two underlying causes

somatogenic- biological/organic


psycholgenic- psychological

2 types of therapies

1. based primarily in psychological theory and techniques


2. uses medical intervention to bring symptoms under control

empirical validation

deny the claim


psychotherapy doesn't work


conduct experiments


therapy has some evidence to suggest that it works better than another therapy or better than doing nothing

schizophrenia treatment

medical intervention to reduce dopamine levels

phobias treatment

behavioral therapies and exposure therapies


systematic desensitization (relaxation techniques and gradual exposure) and flooding (patient in feared situation all at once)

depression treatment

drug therapy, psychotherapy


electroconvulsive therapy

psychotherapies

psychodynamics- based on work of fraud, primary focus on unconscious mind


behavioral and social cognitive views- focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior; based on the theories of learning


humanistic- focuses on conscious life experiences and choices


trait- focuses on characteristics themselves not roots of personality

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes


2 roots of psychology


nurture vs nature


combination of nature (biological) and nurture (mothers care that helps us grow)

independent variable

experimenter manipulates

dependent variable

variable that researchers feel will be affected by the variable

control variables

the group/variable for which one level of the IV involves and absences of variable of interest

correlation

correlation= causation

anatomy of a neuron

dendrites little legs on top of cell body



nucleus


small circle inside of cell body


cell body

main part of neuron

axon helix

base of cell body

axon

long neural part

collateral branches

branches off from axon helix

terminal buttons

tiny branches off

action potential

calcium rushing in


potassium rushing out

homeostasis

the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant

positive reinforcement

giving someone a reward for doing a good job

negative reinforcement

taking away something because you did the right thing, like when your car stops beeping because you buckled your seat belt

negative punishment

taking something away to make an event less likley to occur;ex. pressing a bar to ease the pain

sensation

getting sensory information from the outside enviroment

perception

mental organization and interpretation of sensory information

long-term memory capacity

limitless

short-term memory capacity

four items or less

sensory memory capacity

one-third of a second

sensory duration

snapshots and frames

short-term memory duration

seven items plus or minus two

long-term memory duration

limitless

cephalocaudal

head to tail


lower part of body grows later than head

proximodistal

near to far


extremities grow later than head, chest,and trunk

attachment theory

babies want comfort of their mother more than they need their biological urges

cognitive dissonance

when one's behavior and their moral beliefs don't match; they make a change to one or the other to make them match inside their heads

bystander effect

the amount of people standing by during a crime determines if anythings going to be done about it. Unless a responsibility is placed on someone directly then no one will get help.