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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

cultural relativism

suggests that psychological disorders can only be understood in cultural framework that they occur in

culture - bound syndromes

psychological disorders observed only in certain socio - cultural scenarios


misinterpreting culturally sanctioned behavior as expressions of pathological symptoms


psychological disorders that encompass behavioral, cognitive, & emotional aspects of functioning


attributing pathological symptoms to normative cultural differences

theory opposing cultural relativism

suggests that there are universalities in underlying psychological mechanisms/experiences causing psychological disorders

defining abnormality based on deviance

look at person's behavior in terms of social norms

problems (abnormality based on deviance)

subjective; not all socially deviant behavior qualifies as abnormal/psychological disorder (ex. homosexuality)

defining abnormality based on subjective distress

look at whether behavior causes personal emotional stressp

problems (abnormality based on subjective distress)

can depend on how other people treat person because of their behavior

defining abnormality in cultural context

uses cultural relativism to determine if behavior is abnormal

modifications made to DSM-IV to increase cultural sensitivity

1. incorporate info on how symptoms of disorders can vary based on culture

2. include 25 culture - bound syndromes

3. add guidelines for assessment of person's cultural background & differences between person & clinician

international classification of diseases

way other than DSM to classify physical & psychological disorders; most widely used


diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

problems with ICD

doesn't recognize cultural importance in expression/presentation of mental disorders

problems with analyzing mental disorders cross-culturally using same tests

can use culture-specific phrases that individual doesn't understand

present state examination (pse)

used by WHO to diagnose schizophrenia

problems with pse

ethnocentric procedures/languages (people from different cultures describe how they're feeling in different ways)

american indian depression schedule

used to study depression in native americans; includes acute unease/dissatisfaction native americans can associate w/depression

child behavior checklist

cbcl; assesses behavioral, emotional, & social problems of children worldwide; assesses internalizing & externalizing behaviors

internalizing behaviors

withdrawn behavior, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints

externalizing behaviors

attention problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior

first review of cbcl

looked at cbcl for kids age 6-17 across 12 countries; found cbcl to be reliable but are issues

issues with cbcl (first review)

clinical cutoff points can vary based on culture

second review of cbcl

confirmed that factor structure similar for studies of children & adolescents age 6-18 across 30 coutnries

factor structure

- existence of specific dimensions/expressions of mental disorders

- includes withdraw, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints & internalizing/externalizing behaviors

third review of cbcl

looked at parent ratings of their young kids using cbcl across 23 countries; confirmed similar factor structure across these countries

issues with cbcl

may not capture culture - specific dimensions of problematic behavior (ex. weis study of behavioral dimensions)

weis study of behavioral dimensions

looked at behavior dimensions in children with mental disorders; found culture - specific dimensions (ex. delayed maturation & indirect aggression in Thailand kids)

li-repac study of culture in diagnostic approaches

studied role of culture in diagnostic approach of therapists; chinese & american subjects interviewed & videotaped --> interview watched by either chinese or american therapist

results li-repac culture diagnostics study

found that overlap (or lack) of pt & client influenced therapists perceptions about client

chinese pt/chinese therapist

pt seen as honorable, adaptable, & friendly

chinese pt/american therapist

pt seen as awkward, confused, & nervous; more likely to be seen as depressed & less socially capable

american pt/chinese therapist

pt seen as aggressive & rebellious; more likely to be seen as severely disturbed

american pt/american therapist

pt seen as sincere & easygoing

chang teacher/student assessment study

- looked at white teachers & if their assessments of normal behavior depended on ethnicity of child

- teachers given short stories about kid who displayed overcontrolled, undercontrolled, & normal school behaviors paired w/ picture of white, black or asian child

overcontrolled school behaviors

anxious to please, perfectionist, clings to adults, shy & timid

undercontrolled school behaviors

disobedient, disrupts class, talks out of turn, fidgety

normal school behaviors

follows rules, demonstrates normal play, has some friends

results (chang teacher/student assessment study)

- teachers rated asian kids as overcontrolled more often than black/white kids

- could lead to teachers overlooking problems that can occur if kid is overcontrolled b/c they think that's normal for them

culturally responsive assessment requires . . .


acknowledgment/understanding of client's cultural background & understanding of therapist's own possible biases

for bilingual clients who speak english . . .

- assessment should be done in home language & english to avoid cultural nuances that can exist across languages

- can result in over/underpathologizing if you don't


- seen as reliable, valid, & congruent cross - culturally

- used to evaluate personality scales, psychopathology, & abnormal behavior

Pace's issues with mmpi

- may not accurately assess native americans (usually score higher on several scales compared to norms)

- argues that higher scores indicate worldviews, beliefs, & behaviors rather than higher level of pathology in native americans

what has been done to account for mmpi's lack of cultural awareness?

creation of cultural variations (ex. korean mmpi & chinese personality assessment inventory)

chinese personality assessment inventory

- created specifically for use with chinese people

- includes indigenous concepts from chinese culture (ex. interpersonal relatedness)

prevalence of schizophrenia in u.s.

- 1.1%

- affects men & women equally

some schizophrenia theories say . . .

it's caused by biological factors. others say family dynamics (ex. childhood trauma)

diathesis - stress model of schizophrenia

says that schizophrenia can develop in people with biological predisposition to diathesis after exposure to environmental stressors



schizophrenia symptoms present across cultures

lack of insight, auditory & verbal hallucinations, ideas of reference/assuming that you are center of attention

people in developing countries (schizophrenia)

- outcomes better

- b/c of strong interconnectedness/community support present in developing countries, pt's return to work full - time, & being married

WHO depression study

looked at symptoms of depression in japan, canada, switzerland, & iran

results (WHO depression study)

cross-cultural symptoms: loss of interest, inability to concentrate, sadness, etc.

depression (chinese)

experienced culture - specific symptoms

- heart panic, pain, & dread

- distress of social harmony

- saw insomnia as cause of depression rather than symptom