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19 Cards in this Set

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What is Spearman's g Factor?

- In 1927 the British psychologist Charles Spearman found that individuals' scores on different tests tend to be correlated (those who score high on one generally score high on the others)


- Common factor of general intelligence underlying performance across all intellectual domains


- This general intellectual ability is called the g factor, this general factor is innate

Cattell's Notion of Intelligence

- In 1963, the British psychologist Raymond Cattell determined that general intelligence can be broken down into two relative sperate components


1. Crystallized intelligence


2. Fluid intelligence


- Both types are essential to adaptive living

Cattell's Crystallized Intelligence

- Consists of the knowledge a person has acquired plus the ability to access that knowledge


- Crystallized intelligence relates to the person's ability to store and retrieve info from our memory


- Measured by tests of vocab, math and general info

Cattell's Fluid Intelligence

- Ability to see complex relationships and solve problems


- Ability to reason speedily and abstractly


- Decreases slowly and then rapidly after 75


- Ex: Scientists are better when they are young whereas authors are better older

Cognitive Theories of Intelligence

- From the cognitive perspective, Intelligence include cognitive process underlying success


- Instead of asking "how smart are you?" Cognitive psychologist ask "how are you smart?"



Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

- Made up of three different kinds od intelligence


- Each of the three abilities is relatively independant of the others.


- Each represents a different dimension for describing and evaluating human performance


- Practical Intelligence, Analytical Intelligence and Creative Intelligence

Practical Intelligence

- Ability to cope with people and events in their environment


- Ability to adapt to environment, shape an environment to suit your needs, or to find an environment you can thrive in

Analytical Intelligence

- Ability to rely on problem solving, rational judgement and ability to compare and contrast ideas


- Most IQ test are based on this/ you grade in college are related to this ability

Creative Intelligence

- Helps people develop new ideas and see new relationships among concepts


- Ex: Picasso/ Einstein

Addition to Sternburg's Triarchic Theory

- Added a fourth element called wisdom


- Wisdom involves using intelligence towards common good rather than for selfish goals


- By promoting wisdom we can achieve the societal goals most desire


- Studies shows that wisdom is one predictor of well-being later in life

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

- We have at least 8 sperate mental abilities called multiple intelligence


- Each of those intelligence arise from separate parts of the brain


- Those eight are: Linguistic, Logica- mathematical, Spatial, musical, inter-personal, intra-personal, Bodily- kinaesthetic, naturalistic

Linguistic Intelligence

- Often measured on traditional intelligence tests by vocab and reading comprehension


- Learns through: Reading, hearing and using words, speaking, writing, debating


- Likes to: Read, write, memorize, talk


- Strong in: Reading, writing, memorizing, thinking in words


Ex: Ernest Hemingway

Logical- Mathematical Intelligence

- Measured on most intelligence test with analogies, math problems, and logic problems


- Learns through: Working with patterns and relationships, classifying, working with abstract


- Likes to: solve problems, question, work with numbers and experiment


- Strong in: Math, reasoning, logic, patterns, problem-solving


Ex: Einstein

Spatial Intelligence

- The ability to form and manipulate mental images of objects and to think about their relationships in space


- Learns through: Reading maps, charts, drawings, mazes, puzzles, visualization


- Likes to: Design, draw, build, create, daydream


- Strong in: Working with pictures, and colors, drawing, visualizing


Ex: Picasso

Musical Intelligence

- The ability to preform, compose and appreciate musical patterns


- Learns through: Singing, picking up sounds, remembering melodies, rhythms


- Likes to: Sing, play instruments, listen to music


- Strong in: Rhythm, melody, singing, listening to music


Ex: Bach/ Mozart

Bodily- kinaesthetic Intelligence

- The ability for controlled movement and coordination, such as that needed by an athlete or surgeon.


- Learns through: Athletics, Dancing, Acting, crafts, using tools


- Likes to: Move around, though an talk, body language


- Is strong in: Touching, moving, processing knowledge through bodily sensation


Ex: Kobe Bryant

Naturalistic Intelligence

- The ability to classify living things as members of diverse groups (dogs, flowers) and recognize small change's in environment


- Learns through: Understanding nature, making decisions, Identifying flora and fauna


- Likes to: Be involved with nature, make distinctions


- Strong in: Working in nature, exploring living things, learning about plants and natural events


Ex: Crocodile hunter

Intra-personal Intelligence

- The ability to know oneself, to develop a satisfactory sense of identity, and to regulate one's life


- Learns through: Understanding self, recognizing strengths and weaknesses, setting goals


- Likes to work alone, reflect, pursue interest


- Strong in: Working alone, doing self-paced projects and reflecting


Ex: Freud

Inter-personal Intelligence

- Ability to understand other people's intentions, emotions, motives, and actions, as well as to work effectively with others


- Learns through: Understanding people, leading, organizing, communicating, resolving conflicts, selling


- Likes to: Have friends, talk, join groups


- Is strong in: Sharing, comparing, relating, interviewing and cooperating


Ex: Gandhi