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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is Spearman's g Factor?

- In 1927 the British psychologist Charles Spearman found that individuals' scores on different tests tend to be correlated (those who score high on one generally score high on the others)

- Common factor of general intelligence underlying performance across all intellectual domains

- This general intellectual ability is called the g factor, this general factor is innate

Cattell's Notion of Intelligence

- In 1963, the British psychologist Raymond Cattell determined that general intelligence can be broken down into two relative sperate components

1. Crystallized intelligence

2. Fluid intelligence

- Both types are essential to adaptive living

Cattell's Crystallized Intelligence

- Consists of the knowledge a person has acquired plus the ability to access that knowledge

- Crystallized intelligence relates to the person's ability to store and retrieve info from our memory

- Measured by tests of vocab, math and general info

Cattell's Fluid Intelligence

- Ability to see complex relationships and solve problems

- Ability to reason speedily and abstractly

- Decreases slowly and then rapidly after 75

- Ex: Scientists are better when they are young whereas authors are better older

Cognitive Theories of Intelligence

- From the cognitive perspective, Intelligence include cognitive process underlying success

- Instead of asking "how smart are you?" Cognitive psychologist ask "how are you smart?"

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

- Made up of three different kinds od intelligence

- Each of the three abilities is relatively independant of the others.

- Each represents a different dimension for describing and evaluating human performance

- Practical Intelligence, Analytical Intelligence and Creative Intelligence

Practical Intelligence

- Ability to cope with people and events in their environment

- Ability to adapt to environment, shape an environment to suit your needs, or to find an environment you can thrive in

Analytical Intelligence

- Ability to rely on problem solving, rational judgement and ability to compare and contrast ideas

- Most IQ test are based on this/ you grade in college are related to this ability

Creative Intelligence

- Helps people develop new ideas and see new relationships among concepts

- Ex: Picasso/ Einstein

Addition to Sternburg's Triarchic Theory

- Added a fourth element called wisdom

- Wisdom involves using intelligence towards common good rather than for selfish goals

- By promoting wisdom we can achieve the societal goals most desire

- Studies shows that wisdom is one predictor of well-being later in life

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

- We have at least 8 sperate mental abilities called multiple intelligence

- Each of those intelligence arise from separate parts of the brain

- Those eight are: Linguistic, Logica- mathematical, Spatial, musical, inter-personal, intra-personal, Bodily- kinaesthetic, naturalistic

Linguistic Intelligence

- Often measured on traditional intelligence tests by vocab and reading comprehension

- Learns through: Reading, hearing and using words, speaking, writing, debating

- Likes to: Read, write, memorize, talk

- Strong in: Reading, writing, memorizing, thinking in words

Ex: Ernest Hemingway

Logical- Mathematical Intelligence

- Measured on most intelligence test with analogies, math problems, and logic problems

- Learns through: Working with patterns and relationships, classifying, working with abstract

- Likes to: solve problems, question, work with numbers and experiment

- Strong in: Math, reasoning, logic, patterns, problem-solving

Ex: Einstein

Spatial Intelligence

- The ability to form and manipulate mental images of objects and to think about their relationships in space

- Learns through: Reading maps, charts, drawings, mazes, puzzles, visualization

- Likes to: Design, draw, build, create, daydream

- Strong in: Working with pictures, and colors, drawing, visualizing

Ex: Picasso

Musical Intelligence

- The ability to preform, compose and appreciate musical patterns

- Learns through: Singing, picking up sounds, remembering melodies, rhythms

- Likes to: Sing, play instruments, listen to music

- Strong in: Rhythm, melody, singing, listening to music

Ex: Bach/ Mozart

Bodily- kinaesthetic Intelligence

- The ability for controlled movement and coordination, such as that needed by an athlete or surgeon.

- Learns through: Athletics, Dancing, Acting, crafts, using tools

- Likes to: Move around, though an talk, body language

- Is strong in: Touching, moving, processing knowledge through bodily sensation

Ex: Kobe Bryant

Naturalistic Intelligence

- The ability to classify living things as members of diverse groups (dogs, flowers) and recognize small change's in environment

- Learns through: Understanding nature, making decisions, Identifying flora and fauna

- Likes to: Be involved with nature, make distinctions

- Strong in: Working in nature, exploring living things, learning about plants and natural events

Ex: Crocodile hunter

Intra-personal Intelligence

- The ability to know oneself, to develop a satisfactory sense of identity, and to regulate one's life

- Learns through: Understanding self, recognizing strengths and weaknesses, setting goals

- Likes to work alone, reflect, pursue interest

- Strong in: Working alone, doing self-paced projects and reflecting

Ex: Freud

Inter-personal Intelligence

- Ability to understand other people's intentions, emotions, motives, and actions, as well as to work effectively with others

- Learns through: Understanding people, leading, organizing, communicating, resolving conflicts, selling

- Likes to: Have friends, talk, join groups

- Is strong in: Sharing, comparing, relating, interviewing and cooperating

Ex: Gandhi