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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
any circumstance that threatens or is perceived to threaten one’s well being
• Stress has both psychological and physiological components
the pursuit of a goal is presented
two or more competing and incompatible goals occur
• Three General Types of Conflict
1. Approach-Approach Conflicts:
2. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
3. Approach-Avoidance Conflict:
Approach-Approach Conflicts:
A choice must be made between two desirable goals. The least stressful type of conflict
• Deciding between studying abroad over the summer, or having an internship in DC, both desirable
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflic
a choice must be made between two unattractive goals
• A boy wants to break up with his annoying girlfriend, but the thought of breaking up with her is just as annoying
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
a choice must be made about to achieve a goal which has both positive and negative attributes
• On a cold morning, do you stay in bed (since its freezing and it will be awful to walk to class) or miss the notes from class?
any notable difference in one’s life which requires adaptation. Both positive and negative life changes can be stressful
• Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Scale:
Death of a Spouse 100 Points
o Marital Reconciliation 45 Points
o Change in Financial Status 38 Points
expectations or demands that one behave in a particular manner
• General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye) (3 stages)
All types of stressful situations lead to a similar stress response consisting of
the body releases adrenal hormones, sympathetic nervous system is activated
 Realizing “there is an exam next week in orgo! I haven’t studied yet!”
body is on “high alert”
 Body doesn’t get the chance to settle down because after Orgo, is the Stats exam, and then the psych paper is due!
3. Exhaustion: increased physiological vulnerability to stress
 After the resistance, the body is over worked, more vulnerable to getting sick!
increased physiological vulnerability to stress
 After the resistance, the body is over worked, more vulnerable to getting sick!
also studied stress in terms of the “daily hassles,” said the sum of total mundane life tasks combine to create significant levels of stress
• Parents think: did I pay the water bill? I haven’t picked up stamps, and I need to help my kids with math homework but I can’t multiply fractions, and I need to get dinner for tonight, but Johnny won’t eat chicken and I already made the chicken!
What strategies you use to buffer against the stress cycle. Active efforts to master, reduce or accept the demands created by stress
• Adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies exist
o Not everything people do to help them when they are stressed are the best solutions!
o Maladaptive Coping Strategies (Displaced Aggression)
• Displaced Aggression: harmful to some who is verbally/physically targeted, who is not actually the “object” of the hostility
 Go to dinner at the Mother-in-Law’s, and she says mean things to you, but you don’t say anything in return, the next day at work, you project your anger on a co-worker
Maladaptive Coping Strategies (Catharsis)
• Catharsis: the release of emotional tension
 Taking the anger out on a pillow, only temporarily helpful
Maladaptive Coping Strategies (Self Indulgence)
• Self Indulgence: compensate for deprived/frustrated feelings by trying to promote a feeling of satisfaction in another area
 When oreos make you feel less stressed! Or going shopping for shoes! May make someone feel better, but does not solve the problem.
• Defense Mechanisms (Compensation)
 Compensation: counteracting a real or imagined weakness by emphasizing desirable traits or seeking to excel in other areas
Defense Mechanisms (Denial)
 Denial: protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it
Defense Mechanisms (Fantasy)
 Fantasy: fulfilling unmet desires in imagined achievements or activities
Defense Mechanisms (Identification)
 Identification: taking on some of the characteristics of an admired person, usually as a way of compensating for perceived personal weaknesses
o Constructive Coping Strategies:
healthy efforts to deal with a stressful event making one more resilient to the stressor(s)
Constructive Coping Strategies (Problem Focused Coping)
• Problem Focused Coping: how to change the situation that has created the problem
 What do you do to get the kids to school on-time? Mornings are always stressful with kids running around getting ready! Instead, we don’t go to bed at night unless bags are packed and next to the door and outfits are picked out!
Constructive Coping Strategies (Emotion Focused Coping)
• Emotion Focused Coping: how to change perceptions/reactions to the situation
 Its only elementary school, lets stop worrying about it, lets find your shoes, and its not that big of a deal!
Constructive Coping Strategies (Optimism)
• Optimism: people with more positive outlooks handle stress better
 Its better to see the glass as half full! People who are optimistic handle stress better, trying to help pessimists find optimism
Constructive Coping Strategies (Social Supports)
• Social Supports: presence of social support provide adaptive coping/release from pressures
 Having a friend help you out on a crummy day
• Sense of self-efficacy/tools to respond to stressors and feeling of being stressed
• Variables that indicate how kids will do in stressful situations
 Individual Variables: gender: males are more vulnerable, age: younger kids more than older kids, temperament
 Familiar Variables: whether or not a child has loving supportive parents, strong financial abilities or not
 External Variables: whether or not a child has a good teacher looking out for them, or a member of a sports team, what other variables in the community are there
 Type A Personalities-
competitive, impatient, and more prone to aggression (Molly)
 Type B Personalities-
more relaxed, easy going, and less quick to anger
 Theraputic Interventions
(deep breathing) used to identify and reduce stress can be effective
 Exercise-
can reduce stress, serves to improve both physiological and psychological well being
 Pets and Plants
have been shown to reduce stress
• Petting an animal has been shown to reduce high blood pressure
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder:
the enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event (war, car accident, tornado, abuse, rape and chronic stress conditions now included…)
• Child Abuse:
non-accidental physical attack on or injury to children by individuals caring for them
o Child Neglect:
absence of adequate social, emotional and physical care
o Parent Focused Symptoms of child abuse
• Shows little concern for the child (school)
• Denies the existence of, or blames the child for problem at school or home
• Requests harsh discipline for the child
• Sees child as bad, worthless or burdensome
• Risk Factors for the Child
Age and Gender: younger kids are more likely to be neglected, older (especially females) are at a greater chance of sexual abuse
o Children with disabilities/mental retardation are at a higher risk
o Premature birth, and low birth weight
o Childhood trauma
o Behavior problems/attention deficits
o Chronic or Serious Illness
o Difficult temperament/Slow to warm up to people
Ferber Method
Babies need a sense of a trusting world, the best thing to do is what feels right for both the parent and child, and remind children that it is a secure, loving, and trusting home, reassuring the baby