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26 Cards in this Set

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cognition

mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communication

concept

mental grouping of similar objects, events or people




organize concepts into hierarchies

prototype

category


they fail when:


~when examples stretch our definitions


~the boundary between concepts is fuzzy


~when examples contradict our prototypes

problem solving methods

trial and error


algorithm - methodically leading to a specific solution


heuristic - short-cut,


insight a sudden realization

insight

the "aha" moment


occurs in temporal cortex in .3 seconds

confirmation bias

tendency to search for information that confirms ones preconceptions

fixation

INABILITY to see a problem from a NEW perspective




ignoring new facts

mental set

tendency to approach a problem in a particular way

functional FIXation

tendency to perceive the functions of objects as FIXED and unchanging

representative heuristic

rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes


availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory




EX: airplane crash, shark attacks

belief perseverance error

the tendency to hold onto our beliefs when facing contrary evidence



diff between confirmation bias and belief perseverance

CB is not bothering to seek out info that contradicts yours




BP is holding onto ideas and actively rejecting info that contradicts yours

framing

the way an issue is stated, can affect decision




EX: what is the best way to market ground beef?


as 25% fat or 75% lean?



phoneme

the smallest distinctive sound unit

morpheme

smallest unit that carries MEANING, may be a word or prefix

receptive

0-4 months


associating sounds with facial movements

productive

4 months


babbling in multilingual sounds and gestures

babbling

10 months


sounds more like the parents language



one word

12 months


"doggy"

two word

18-24 months

speaking full sentences

2+ years

aphasia

an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language

damage to the broca area

can't speak, but can comprehend




in left temporal lobe

damage to wernickle

can speak, cant comprehend




in left temporal lobe

how we read a word

1. visual cortex- receive written words


2. angular gyrus- transforms visual representations into auditory code


3. wernickle's area- interprets auditory code


4. broca's area- controls speech muscles via the motor cortex


5.motor cortex- word is pronounced


VAWBM