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26 Cards in this Set

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mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communication


mental grouping of similar objects, events or people

organize concepts into hierarchies



they fail when:

~when examples stretch our definitions

~the boundary between concepts is fuzzy

~when examples contradict our prototypes

problem solving methods

trial and error

algorithm - methodically leading to a specific solution

heuristic - short-cut,

insight a sudden realization


the "aha" moment

occurs in temporal cortex in .3 seconds

confirmation bias

tendency to search for information that confirms ones preconceptions


INABILITY to see a problem from a NEW perspective

ignoring new facts

mental set

tendency to approach a problem in a particular way

functional FIXation

tendency to perceive the functions of objects as FIXED and unchanging

representative heuristic

rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

EX: airplane crash, shark attacks

belief perseverance error

the tendency to hold onto our beliefs when facing contrary evidence

diff between confirmation bias and belief perseverance

CB is not bothering to seek out info that contradicts yours

BP is holding onto ideas and actively rejecting info that contradicts yours


the way an issue is stated, can affect decision

EX: what is the best way to market ground beef?

as 25% fat or 75% lean?


the smallest distinctive sound unit


smallest unit that carries MEANING, may be a word or prefix


0-4 months

associating sounds with facial movements


4 months

babbling in multilingual sounds and gestures


10 months

sounds more like the parents language

one word

12 months


two word

18-24 months

speaking full sentences

2+ years


an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language

damage to the broca area

can't speak, but can comprehend

in left temporal lobe

damage to wernickle

can speak, cant comprehend

in left temporal lobe

how we read a word

1. visual cortex- receive written words

2. angular gyrus- transforms visual representations into auditory code

3. wernickle's area- interprets auditory code

4. broca's area- controls speech muscles via the motor cortex

5.motor cortex- word is pronounced