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31 Cards in this Set

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zygote

fertilized egg


0-2 weeks

embryo

2 - 8 weeks

fetus

9 weeks - birth

habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation




infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus

schema

concept or framework that organizes and interprets information




mental molds which we pour our experiences




grow and are created by the process of assimilation and accommodation

assimilation

interpreting your new experience in terms of your existing schema




EX: "doggie" = all four legged creatures

accommodation

adapting your current understandings to incorporate new info




EX: "doggie" is too broad, change schema of "doggie" to create new schemas for cats, cows ect

Jean Piaget

came up with stages of cognitive development


sensorimotor


preocupational


concrete operational


formal operational

Sensorimotor

birth - 2 years


experience world thru looking, touching, & mouthing


characterized by: stranger anxiety and developement of object permanence

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

preoperational stage

2-6 years


represent things with words and images but lack logical reasoning


characterized by: language development, theory of mind, egocentrism, think unidimensionally, lack conservation

theory of mind

peoples ideas about their own and others mental states

concrete operational stage

6-12


can think logically and but NOT abstractly


characterized by: conservation and math operations

formal operational stage

12 +


capable of abstract thinking


capacity for moral reasoning

attachment styles

~secure


~anxious/ambivalent- due to inconsistent parenting


~avoidant- due to smothering parenting

when does attachment peak

13 months

authoritarian

high control/low acceptance


parents impose rules and expect obedience




kids bad with emotions

authoritative

high control/high acceptance


parents are both demanding and responsive


set rules, but explain reasons




kids usually popular

Kohlberg's Moral Ladder

postconventional


conventional


preconventional




each step, focus grows less from self and more towards world

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles




(infancy, toddlerhood, preschooler, blank vs blank)

infancy

0-1


trust vs mistrust

toddlerhood

autonomy vs shame and doubt




toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves or they doubt their abilities

preschooler

3-5


initiative vs guilt


initiate plans or feel guilty about efforts to be independent

elementary school

6-puberty


competence vs inferiority


kids learn pleasure of applying themselves or feel inferior

adolescence

teen - 20s


identity vs role confusion



young adulthood

20s-40s


intimacy vs isolation





middle adulthood

40s-60s


generativity vs stagnation


contributing to the world or lack of purpose



late adulthood

60s and up


integrity vs despair


feeling satisfaction or failure when reflecting on life

cross sectional study

a study in which people of DIFFERENT ages are compared with one another

longitudinal study

a study in which the SAME people are restudied and retested over a LONG period of time

verbal vs non verbal scores with age

verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age


nonverbal intelligence scores decline with age