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18 Cards in this Set

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Typical 1 year old height and weight

32 inches and 22 pounds

typical two year old height and weight

36 inches and 30 pounds






head 1/5 body

average newborn height and weight

19.5 and 7.5




head is 1/4 body

Cephalocaudal trend

"head to tail" head develops more rapidly than limbs during prenatal period

Proximodistal trend

growth precedes from "near to far" head chest and trunk grow first



Epiphyses

Bone centers. cartilage cells at the extreme ends of each long body bone. upper epiphysis, growth plate, bone shaft, growth plate, lower epiphysis

fontanels

"soft spots" in the brain that allow for brain growth and bone overlapping in birth.

anterior is the largest, on the top of the head.


neurotransmitters

cross synapses. Elaborate communication system. Stimulation is vital for neuron survival





few neurons are produced after the prenatal


period.

synaptic pruning

neurons not needed at a time return to an uncommitted state so they can support future development

Glial cells and Myelination

Some glial cells participate directly in neural communication.




about half of the brain.



EEG

One of the best ways to read brain-wave activity. electrodes go on as a cap

Cerebral Cortex

about half of the brain. Holds greatest number of neurons and synapses

frontal lobe

has the prefrontal cortex: responsible for thought. (consciousness, information, memory, problem solving, reasoning, planning. Functions effectively from 2 months on. forehead.

occipital lobe

back of brain. in the cerebral cortex. contains visual cortex- sight lobe.

Parietal Lobe

language processing




back middle

temporal lobe

long term memories, emotions,



bottom middle


Lateralization

right hemisphere: spatial, negative emotion

Left hemisphere: communication.



Brain plasticity

a plastic cerebral cortex has places that are not yet committed to specific functions. High capacity for learning.