Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/136

Click to flip

136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define the types of celibacy.

-complete celibacy: no sexual behavior with self or with others


-partial celibacy: masturbation is allowed but no intercourse with other people

Discuss some of the reasons a person might celibate.

Some reasons include:


-Religious/moral beliefs


-waiting for the right person


-learning about other aspects of self


-health considerations


-during substance abuse recovery

Discuss erotic dreams and fantasy and how common they are in men and women.

Sexual dreams indicate expression and exploration of desires.


-most common in men, 2/3 of women. 95% of men and women fantasize.

What is a nocturnal orgasm? When and in whom does it occur?

Referred to as "wet dreams. It is a spontaneous orgasm during sleep that includes ejaculation for a male, or vaginal wetness or an orgasm for a female.

Why do people fantasize? (Functions they serve)

-source of pleasure and arousal


-overcome sexual anxiety


-acceptable expression of socially unacceptable behavior

Research shown about what men and women focus on in erotic fantasies..

Men focus on women's bodies, what they want them to do, explicit sexual acts, nude bodies, physical gratification, multiple partners, group sex, and domination.


Women focus on men's interest in their bodies, emotional context, romance, and submission.

Research that supports both the negative and positive aspects of sexual fantasy.

Negative aspects: psychologically and emotionally troubling, can become obsessive and compulsive, not shared with partner, can be criminal behavior. Positive aspects: good erotic fantasies boost our self-esteem.

Define masturbation

Sexual behavior performed on oneself by oneself, typically focusing on manipulation of the genitals to orgasm.

Traditional and contemporary views of masturbation

1. Viewed as non-procreational - Freud considered it immature


2. Erroneous health concerns - contemporary research has established that it is not harmful


3. Follow your moral values


4. Traditional condemnation

Reasons why people masturbate

Relieves sexual tension, means of seld-exploration, assists in physical relaxation.

Various self-pleasuring techniques.

Set aside adequate time and relax, experiment with different types of touch, external aids available (vibrators, dildos)

Explain some of the benefits of kissing and touching... and primary and secondary erogenous zones

Couples who kiss more report greater satisfaction. Touching is the cornerstone of human sexuality, the whole body is responsive..


-Primary erogenous zones: genitalia, lips, breasts (female and male)


-Secondary erogenous zones: associated with sex over time (ex: neck, ears, shoulders, toes, fingers)

Cunnilingus

Oral sex performed on a female

Fellatio

Oral sex performed on a male

Attitudes toward cunnilingus and fellatio behaviors.

Some people object to it and say it's wrong and conflicts with personal code of behavior. Some are worried about the smell or don't want ejaculation in their mouth.

Describe some of the considerations in practicing anal stimulation and cite research related to frequency of this sexual practice.

Prevalence (presence) is lower than other forms or sexual activity. Something to take into account is anal stimulation accounts for a higher health risk of HIV or other infections. Tissue in anus is very thin and delicate.. and there's no natural lubrication so lubricants and general insertion needed.

Intromission

The action or process of inserting the penis into the vagina in sexual intercourse.

Explain the difference between a dildo and a vibrator.

Vibrator is an electronically powered device used to provide sexual stimulation. Dildos and sex toys are designed for penetration of the vagina or anus.

Explain the particular characteristic necessary for any toy that is going to be used in the anal cavity and explain why.

It must have a flared base. If not, when inserted it may go all of the way into the anal cavity (rectum). We do not have complete control over the muscles in the rectum. It may not be possible to remove the item without surgical intervention. So it is critical that any toy used in the anus/rectum have a flared base so that it does not fully insert into the rectum.

What is the potential problem with sharing sexual aids?

Shared sex toys have the potential to transmit STIs. There was a study finding that HPV can linger on some vibrators up to 24 hours after use, even after they have been cleaned.

Analingus

Sexual contact between tongue or mouth of person A and anus of person B.

Coitus

Penetration of the vagina by the penis

Explain how sexual disorders are defined, diagnosed, and evaluated. Three dimensional model.

For diagnosing, a problem must have been present for at least 6 months. Three-dimensional model for evaluating a sexual problem. 1. Duration (primary- one that has existed for all of a person's sexual life OR secondary - problem is one that is occurring now but was not present at some point in a person's sexual past) 2. Context (global/generalized or situational) 3. Frequency (partial or total)

What are the 3 D's with sexual difficulties and solutions?

-is it Different from the norm


-does it cause Distress


-Dysfunction

Female sexual interest/arousal disorder

-lack of interest in sexual activity


-usually temporary


-often due to relationship problems or internalized negative attitudes about sex


-very common

Female genital sexual arousal disorder

-inhibited lubrication


-inhibited vasocongestive response

Female subjective sexual arousal disorder

-Physical signs of arousal are present


-Feelings of sexual excitement and pleasure are absent or diminished

Persistent genital arousal disorder (for females)

-spontaneous and unwanted genital arousal in the absence of sexual interest


-one or more orgasms do not relieve arousal


-arousal can persist for days


-causes and treatment unknown

Sexual aversion disorder

-extreme, irrational fear of sexual activity


-often due to sexual abuse or assault

Male sexual interest/arousal disorder (ED)

-male hypoactive sexual desire disorder


-Erectile Disorder (ED) occurs in 1 in 5 men older than 20 years.


--> most often caused by combination or biological, psychological, and social factors.

Difference between generalized and situational sexual problems

With situational sexual problems you only have a sexual dyafunxtion in certain situations. A person's sexual problem is not evident in all sexual behaviors. With generalized you always have a sexual dyafunxtion. Evident in all sexual behaviors.

Discuss some of the physiological factors that may contribute to sexual problems, including effects of some abused and/or illicit drugs. SSRIs, biological or physiological causes..

SSRIs: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; drugs administered to treat depression that may cause various sexual side effects, especially inhibited or delayed arousal or orgasm. Biological or physiological causes of sexual problems include: neurological, hormonal, vascular, drugs, antidepressants. For example: cocaine inhibits orgasm for men and women and caused erectile difficulties in men. Marijuana decreases sexual desire in men and women. Tobacco decreases frequency and duration of erections.

What are some reasons for taking orgasms?

-avoiding disappointing or hurting partner


- to get sex over with


-poor communication


-limited knowledge of sexual techniques


-attempt to hide deteriorating relationship

What is a problem with taking orgasms?

Decreased intimacy and may reinforce ineffective behaviors.

Self-awareness in relation to sexual enhancement and sex therapy

Masturbation as treatment. Helps with erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, arousal disorder, lack of orgasm. Works because people who are experiencing a sexual problem with their partner rarely experience the sane problem while masturbating.

Senate focus relating to sexual enhancement and sex therapy

Sex therapy technique that requires a couple to redirect emphasis away from intercourse and focus on their capacity for mutual sensitivity. Couples reconnecting on sensual level rather than sexual. Couple begins exercises of JUST touching each others' bodies weekly without touching genitals or breasts. Intended to enjoy pleasure of touching without worrying about reciprocating sexual acts or pressure of performance.

What are the basics of sexual enhancement and sex therapy?

Self-awareness, communication, and Senate focus.

List and explain the specific suggestions for women in dealing with sexual difficulties.

Specific suggestions for women and becoming orgasmic:


1. Self-stimulation - (masturbation) is the manual stimulation of your own genital organ for sexual pleasure.


2. Vibrator use


3. Clitoral pump (Eros clitoral therapy device) - only FDA approved device for treatment of sexual arousal and orgasmic disorder.


4. Self reflection - identifying situations, specific actions that led to orgasms previously.. and evaluate personal views on female sexuality.


5. Allow time

List and explain the specific suggestions for men dealing with erectile dysfunction

-psychological: reduce anxiety


-medical: Viagra, levitra, cialis...


-Mechanical: suction pump


-surgical treatment: implants

Specific suggestions for men dealing with premature ejaculation and wanting to delay it.

-more frequent ejaculation


-"Come again"


-change positions


-communication


-alternative techniques


-stop-start technique - man learns to identify mid-level excitement. Requires man to stop stimulation and allows the excitement level to diminish before starting again.

Explain what happens during sex therapy and some suggestions for finding a therapist.

You identity and clarify problems and goals. Medical, sexual, and relationship history. Often given homework. Doesn't include sex with therapist. Suggestions for finding a therapist: referral from a trusted source, ask about credentials, training, and experience... interview: practicalities and "fit"

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

-has low desire for sex and absent sexual thoughts or fantasies


-disease causes distress or interpersonal difficulty

Desire discrepancy

Difference between one's desired frequency of sexual intercourse and the actual frequency of sexual intercourse within a relationship.

Primary Anorgasmia

Condition in which you've never had an orgasm

Secondary Anorgasmia

Difficulty reaching orgasm, even though you have had one before

Situational Anorgasmia

Most common type of orgasmic dysfunction. Occurs when you can only orgasm during specific situations, such as during oral sex or masturbation.

Dyspareunia

Painful sexual intercourse. Usually experienced as pain in the vagina, the vaginal opening, or deeper in the abdominal cavity during or just after intercourse.

Vaginismus

Pain in a woman just prior to intercourse or other vaginal insertion, due to involuntary contractions and spasms of the pelvic muscles controlling the opening to and outer third of the vagina

Penile prosthesis

Another treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction. Devices are either malleable (bendable) or inflatable. Simplest type of prosthesis consists of a pair of malleable rods surgically implanted within the erection chambers of the penis. With this type of implant the penis is always semi-rigid and merely needs to be lifted or adjusted into the erect position to initiate sex.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of becoming a parent?

Advantages:


-children give and receive love


-may enhance relationship


-builds self-esteem


-sense of accomplishment


-greater meaning


-satisfaction


Disadvantages:


-money


-exhausting


-gets in way of career

List factors that will increase the possibility of conception.

Intercourse just prior to or at ovulation.


Predicting ovulation: mucus, calendar, basal body temperature.

Explain impaired fertility (or infertility ) and summarize the scope of the problem. Causes of low or absent fertility.

Diagnosis of infertility: if it's been more than 6 months of trying there's a problem, not conceiving after at least 1 year. Causes are complex and hard to understand. Unidentifiable in 15% of cases.

Female infertility

Failure to ovulate regularly. Cervical mucus may destroy sperm, sperm may not reach egg and fertilized egg may not implant.

Male infertility

Abnormal sperm count or motility, impaired sperm production.

Reproductive technologies to help impaired fertility...

-artificial insemination


-surrogacy


-assisted reproductive technology


-in vitro fertilization

Artificial insemination

The medical procedure of injecting semen into the vagina or uterus

Surrogacy

Woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent after birth. Involves natural or artificial insemination or a surrogate.

Assisted reproductive technology and potential problems

Combine sperm and egg in a laboratory then implant the embryo into the uterus. Fertilization outside of body in a lab. Ova taken from female and sperm taken from male and combined in a lab dish for fertilization. Fertilized ovum is injected into the uterus for implantation.


-->risks and complications... this technology has an increased risk of low birth weight, cerebral palsy, and major birth defects.

What are the initial signs of pregnancy a woman may experience? How can these be confirmed?

Initial signs:


-light period


-spotting or no period


-fatigue


-tender breasts


-nausea/vomiting


-appetite change


-subtle softening of uterus at 6 weeks


Blood or urine for HCG (pregnancy test to confirm)

Discuss the incidence and issues involved in spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), including the emotional aspects. And causes.

Most commonly occurs in the first 20 weeks. 10-20% of all pregnancies.


Common causes of miscarriages: genetics, infections, anatomic problems, clotting disorders, progesterone deficiency.


After miscarriage they will most likely be worried it will happen again.

Discuss issues relevant to abortions including legal and illegal abortion, abortion laws.. (history and abortion controversy)

Abortion controversy: 13th century - according to Catholic church, development of soul after conception. 40 days for males, 90 days for females. Early American law allowed abortion until quickening (movement of the fetus).


1860s: Catholic church- life begins at conception. (Mother and fetus are equally important) abortion became illegal except to save the mother's life.

What are reasons why women decide to have elective abortions?

-concern about responsibility to others


-inability to afford raising a child


-belied that having a baby would interfere with work, school, or ability to care for dependents.

Discuss the practice of abortion in the U.S. and in Italy.

U.S. abortion controversy: 1973 Roe Vs Wade. Abortion is legal before age of viability. If the fetus can survive outside the uterus (viability).. if the fetus can't then it is legal to abort.


1977 Hyde Amendment - this prevented funds being used for Abortion (except rape and incest)


--> elective abortion in Italy: abortion legal in 1978. Limited access.. 70% of doctors refuse to provide abortions.

Compare the beliefs of individuals who hold strong pro-choice values with those individuals who hold strong pro-life values.

People who are pro-life are opposed to abortion and believe that it should be illegal under most or all circumstances. People who are pro-choice believe that abortion should be legal under some or all circumstances.

Zygote

Fertilized egg

Blastocyst

Zygote divides into smaller clusters of cells as it travels down the fallopian tube.

Embryo

Implantation of the uterus

Stillbirth

Death or loss of a baby before or during delivery. Both miscarriage and stillbirth describe pregnancy loss, but they differ according to when the loss occurs.

Elective abortion

When an abortion is performed at the request of the woman for non-medical reasons

Artificial insemination

The induction of viable sperm to fertilize the mother's egg by artificial means.

Human chioronic gonadrotropin

Hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. Presence of HCG is detected in some pregnancy tests

Zygote intrafallopian transfer

Infertility treatment used when a blockage in the fallopian tubes prevents the normal binding of sperm to the egg

Explain how humans are “sexual beings” from birth through childhood and summarize the behaviors and potential difficulties that accompany childhood sexual development

There are common behaviors at varying ages that suggest we are “sexual beings” from birth through childhood. Such as at 2-3 years old masturbation begins. At 4-7 years sex play begins. At 5-7 years they begin to enact marriage scripts. At 8-9 years: homosociality(same-sex relationships not of romantic nature). At 10-11 years there’s interest in bodily changes.


Potential difficulty: unable to differentiate sexual from sensual pleasure.

Review the complex issues associated with sexual development during adolescence including education, puberty, teen intimate relationships, teen dating, sexual behavior in adolescence, teen pregnancy, and the issues and prevalence of STI’s among adolescents.

Puberty: Girls develop breast buds and voice changes. Boys get facial hair and voice deepens. Menarche (the first occurrence of menstruation): average age 12 or 13. Boys have their first ejaculation around 13. Physical changes can be sources of pride or concern for girls and boys. -->Masturabation in Adolescence: -Increase in frequency and numbers


-Safe sexual release-Way to learn about selfTeens less likely than adults to use Birth Control.. They have lack of adequate knowledge (not enough sex ed!!), believe that planning ahead implies loose morals, fear of pelvic exam, difficulty communicating with partner… If less likely to use condoms… more likely to contract sexual transmitted diseases! Also, once pregnant teens are less likely to use condoms.. STIs pose danger for teen and baby.

Define puberty and describe physical changes that occur in general

Puberty: Developmental stage in which youth achieves reproductive capacity. (Physical changes in Adolescence. Onset hormonal changes: 8-14 years old. Triggered by release of gonadotropins (hormones from pituitary). Signals testes and ovaries. Reproductive organs mature. Puberty - 2 years earlier than girls.

Discuss the double standard as it affects adolescent social and sexual behavior.

Girls: Dilemma to appear sexy to attract males but not to appear “easy”. Taught to wear certain things to not distract men or make you more likely to be a victim of sexual harassment. With boys, peers reinforce aggressive and independent behaviors.

Define noncoital sexual expression and discuss how common it is among adolescent females and males.

Noncoital sexual expression provides an important way for many couples to relate to one another, often as an alternative to intercourse. This type of expression includes kissing, holding, touching, manual, and oral stimulation of genitals. Oral-genital activity has increased, learning about sexual intimacy, and question of technically staying a virgin.

Explain the concept of personal fable and how it applies to adolescence.

The personal fable is a belief held by many adolescents telling them that they are special and unique. So much so that none of life’s difficulties or problems will affect them regardless of their behaviors.

Explain how prevalent contraceptive use is among adolescents and what factors affect contraceptive use on a regular basis.

Teens less likely than adults to use birth control. They have a lack of adequate knowledge, believe that planning ahead implies loose morals, fear of pelvic exam, embarrassment with seeking/purchasing, difficulty communicating with partner.

Discuss single living, making specific reference to the following:what factors account for the increasing number of single peoplesexual activity among single people as opposed to married people

Single living: Lifestyle and satisfaction vary widely (Celibacy or long-term monogamy, serial monogamy) Singles report they have sex less often than married people, less satisfied with sex life than married people, and sex life is more exciting than married people. Not looking for a committed relationship might account for increasing number of single people.

Discuss cohabitation, making specific reference to the following:how prevalent it is in our societyadvantages and disadvantages of cohabitation and domestic partnerships

Cohabitation is the state whereby two people live together as a couple but are not legally married. Rates are increasing with cohabitation. 28% of 15-44 year olds cohabitate before marriage. Half of cohabitating couples get married within 3 years. Domestic partnership: Not all the same legal rights and responsibilities as marriage.

Collectivist cultures

-Emphasize group goals over individual -Marriage unites two families not individuals-Arranged marriages common -Emphasize needs of family, community, or religion

Individualistic cultures

-Emphasize feelings of love-Importance of love is a recent innovation

Gottman’s research findings (factors associated with lower satisfaction)

-Facial expressions: Disgust, fear, misery-Higher heart rates-Defensive behaviors

Marriage...

defines rights to inheritance, regulates sexual behavior, emotional and social support system, associated with better health.

Reasons people give for divorce..

-Communication problems-Basic unhappiness-Incompatibility-Drug abuse and physical abuse

Divorce statistics reveal...

Almost half of all first marriages end in divorce

Reasons for increase in divorce rate:

-Increased expectations for marital and sexual fulfillment-No-fault divorce laws-Reduction in social stigma-Women’s economic independence

No fault divorce laws

Divorce where the spouse asking for divorce does not have to prove that the other spouse did something wrong. All states allow no fault divorces. Prior: Had to demonstrate one party was “culpable”. (adultery, abandonment, cruelty of spouse, etc.) If you did it too (both committed adultery for example) - resulted in denial of divorce petition!

Discuss the factors that affect sexual activity in later years.

Factors associated with continued sexual activity: -Prior interest in sexual activity-Regularity of sexual activity-Good physical health

Primary sex characteristics

body structures directly concerned with reproduction that allow us to tell males from females. (penis, vagina)

Secondary sex characteristics

Features that appear at puberty (pubic hair, breast development for females, beards for males)

Comprehensive sex education

a sex education instruction method based on-curriculum that aims to give students the knowledge, attitudes, skills and values to make appropriate and healthy choices in their sexual lives.

Monogamy

Practice of having a sexual relationship with only one partner

Polyandry

polygamy in which a woman has more than one husband

Miscegenation

mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.

Extramarital relationship

Extramarital affairs are relationships outside of marriage where an illicit romantic or sexual relationship or a romantic friendship or passionate attachment occurs.

Widow

a woman who has lost her spouse by death and has not married again

Widower

a man who has lost his spouse by death and has not married again

What are the different types of rape?

-statutory rape: incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse until that person reaches a certain age


-stranger rape


-acquaintance rape or date rape

Identify false beliefs regarding rape and rape myths.

Society teaches "don't get raped" instead of "don't rape". And it's somehow our fault if we dress a certain way and get raped.

Old federal definition of rape

"The carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly and against her Will" - included only forcible male penile penetration of a female vagina.

New federal definition of rape

"The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim"

Prevalence of rape

1 in 6 women (17%) , 3% of men


1 in 10 women have been raped by their boyfriend or husband

How prevalent is acquaintance rape?

Almost 2/3 of rapes are committed by someone known to the victim

Date rape drugs

-Rohyphnol: sedative causing muscle relaxation and amnesia


-Gamma hydroxybutyrate: central nervous system depressant


-Ketamine hydrochloride: CNS depressant

Reasons for rape going underreported

-victim's self-blame or denial


-mistrust of police, legal system


-fear of retaliation from rapist


-concern about publicity

What is rape culture?

-sexual objectification


-victims blaming/slut shaming


-tolerate and normalize


-implicitly condone rape by not actively prosecuting


-perpetuation of rape myths

Intimate partner violence

Domestic violence by a current or former spouse/partner in an intimate relationship against the other partner

Types of IPV

-physical


-emotional


-verbal

Violence against women act

-2000: expanded to protect vulnerable groups (younger victims, elderly, and people with disabilities)


-2005: increase focus on prevention, improve health care response to domestic violence, clarify that it also applies to men


-expires in 2011


-2013: passed the Violence against women reauthorization act of 2013. Includes protection expanded to LGBT people, undocumented immigrants, and native Americans

Incest

Sexual activity with a relative

Pedophilia or molestation

With a non-relative

Prevalence of sexual abuse of children (girls versus boys)

Girls: 20-33%


Boys: 9-16%

Characteristics of child sexual abusers

-mostly heterosexual males


-often times lonely, shy


-poor interpersonal skills


-alcoholism: severe marital problema; sexual difficulties, and poor emotional adjustment

Preventing child sexual abuse

-present prevention-oriented material at young age


-explain "okay" and "not okay" touches to children


-encourage children to believe they have rights


-encourage communication to be immediate when in uncomfortable situations

Sexual harassment

-unwanted sexual attention in the workplace or academic setting

Two types of sexual harassment..

Verbal or physical


-quid pro quo ('favor for a favor')


-hostile or offensive environment

Date rape

Form of acquaintance rape. Date rape specifically refers to a rape in which there has been some sort of romantic or potentially sexual relationship between the 2 parties

Halo effect

Type of cognitive bias in which our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about his or her character. Once a person possesses some negative or positive characteristic, other as yet unknown qualities will also be positive or negative

Rape shield law

Law that limits a defendant's ability to introduce evidence or cross-examine rape complainants about their past sexual behavior.

Denim day

Campaign to prevent sexual violence through education and public awareness. Triggered by a ruling by supreme court where a rape conviction was overturned because the justices felt that since the victim was wearing right jeans she must have helped her rapist remove her jeans... thereby implying consent. So people come together and wear denim as a sign of protest against sexual violence

Fetishism

Sexual arousal primarily from body part or inanimate object

Transvestic fetishism

Sexual arousal from wearing clothes of other sex

Sadism

Sexual arousal from giving physical or psychological pain

Masochism

Sexual arousal from receiving pain

Klismaphilia

Receiving enemas (non-coercive)

Coprophilia

Contact with feces (non-coercive)

Urophilia

Contact with urine (non-coercive)

Exhibitionism

Exposing genitals to an involuntary observer


-some offenders commit more serious crimes

Voyeurism

Sexual arousal from observing others undressing or engaging in sexual activity without their consent.


-offenders often feel inadequate and lack psychosexual skills. Tend to be young men in 20s

Frotteurism

Rubbing against unwilling victim

Zoophilia/beastiality

Sex with animals

Necrophilia

Viewing or having intercourse with corpse

Paraphilia

Sexual arousal to objects or situations that are not part of normative stimulation...

Treatment of paraphilias

-incorporation therapy


-psychotherapy


(Cognitive-behavioral, aversion, covert sensitization)


-orgasmic reconditioning


-drug therapy