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76 Cards in this Set

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illusory correlation
If two events catch our attention and occur

together, we tend to think they’re related


(old people= bad drivers example)

Empiricism
knowledge based on observations,as opposed to common sense or personal beliefs
From least to most important Goals of Science
Describing behavior

Predicting behavior


Determining the cause of behavior


Explaining behavior

Basic Research
Gaining knowledgefor its own sake; Primarily focused onfinding out causesand explaining them
Applied Research
Primarily focused on making predictions and

figuring out how to manipulate causes

Basic: Many findings in basic research are eventually applied to make money, help people, etc.

Applied: Many findings in applied research shed additional lighton the causes and conditionsthat bring about behavior,emotions,


and cognition

Assumptions of Science


Assumption #1:

Determinism- every event is caused


vs.


underdeterminism- events are random and


unpredictable

Assumption #2:

Materialism- all events are caused by things in the material world

Pseudoscience

fake science... example: study of aliens,


astronomy, etc.

Components of an article:

Title


Abstract


Intro


Method


Results


Discussion


References

Independent variable:

What we expect to effect (manipulation)

Dependent Variable:

What we are trying to measure (measured)

Types of research articles:

Primary source:Describe one or more studies conducted by the authors to test a specific set of hypotheses




Secondary Source:Articles that describe or analyze many studies on aparticular topic





Databases

used to collect and manage different journals

The ABCs:

Affect (Emotion)


Behavior


Cognition (thoughts)

Variables:

anything that varies

Extraneous Variables

(Confounding Variable)

Independent variable consists of ________

Levels= different groups or condition

IV consists of levels and _______

Cells= combinations of different groups or conditions
Dependent Variables consist of ______.

Value= different responses on a measure between levels or cells

Induction

observing and making theories

Theory

explanation of how something happens

Deduction

Theory--> hypothesis

hypothesis

prediction that can be tested through data

Operational definition

how a variable will be manipulated or measured

interaction

Effect of a combination of factors on a DV

Best Illustrated by...

Differences:


Interaction:


Relationship:


D: Bar graph


I: line graph


R: scatter plot


Relationship described:

" r"(relation)= +(indicates positive or negative) 0.37 (indicates the strength from 0.00 to 1.00)




(r = + 0.37)

case-studies

observing one or more special cases

(e.g. Phineas gage)




non-experiments

observing behavior as it occurs naturally

Naturalistic Observation

observing people in their natural setting

Third-variable Problem –

when any number of extraneous variables may be causing a relationship

External Validity

e.g. naturalistic observation

natural environment, butthis lack of control causes low internal validity

Internal Validity

E.g. experiments

controlling of the environment (i.e., lab setting), but this causes low externalvalidity

Meta Analysis

when psychologists analyze the data ofmany studies on one topic to gauge the validity of theirhypothesis or the size of an effect

Eugenics

the belief that one race is inferior than others

IRB

Invention of Research Review Boards= regulate research involving human subjects
Research but follow 3 requirements:

1.benefits outweighs risks

2.participation is voluntary, informed consent


3.must be debriefed



Ex Post Facto

Studying variables that you are not directlymanipulating (not random)

Qualitative approach

quality (describing) -good for building new


theories

Quantitative approach

quantity (numbers) -good for testing existing theories

Archival Research

analysis using public resources

Concealment-

whether or not a participant know if they're

being tested


participation-

whether or not the experimenter interacts with the participant

Directional Hypothesis

IN WHAT WAY two or more groups will be different

non-directional hypothesis

predicting that two or more groups will be

different.


more statistically significant if...

1. there are more people in each condition


2. there is a greater distance between group means


3. there is less variability within each condition


( Smaller SD = less likely effects found are due to chancedifferences between groups)



counterhypothesis

opposite of hypothesis

Power analysis

predicting ability of experimentto detect real


effects as significant

quasi experiments have no...

NO


experimental control


randomization


control group



single-case design

participants are analyzed individually,instead of only paying attention to group averages

single case design is measured before and after manipulation

before=baseline

after=treatment


reversal design

after treatment is shown to have aneffect, remove treatment to see if participants returnback to baseline (ABA)

single group design

group averages are analyzed

historical factors

changes in culture across timecan affect DV,


especially when study takes placeover years

Maturation factors
changes in participantsacross time can affect DV

demand factor

participants have clues on the hypothesis

measurement theory

Turning the immaterial intosomething we can measure

Latent variable

variable that cannot be directlymeasured and so must be inferred by something else

extraversion= latent variable

Latent variables often measured with question-naires, because surveys can easily assessemotions and cognitions

comprehension

understanding what is being asked of them

(understand)

Retrieval

remembering informationthat is pertinent to the question


(remember)

judgement

making decision in howto answer the question in anappropriate way



response selection

selecting whatseems to be the best answeravailable


social desirability

tendency to answer is a socially acceptable


manner

Negativity bias-

satisfyzing-


-tendency to answer everything negatively

-participants pick the most appropriate answer




RELIABILITY=

consistent

true score-

measurement error-

-What the score actually should be (signal)

-random variance (noise)

Convergent validity

Divergent validity

Discriminate validity



-positive prediction

-negative prediction


-no prediction


sample=descriptive statistics

population=parameters

inferential statistics

estimation from the population through a sample

sampling error

big difference between sample and population

sampling error increases with:

small samples


large populations


heterogeneity (different types of ppl in popul.)


selection bias

convenience sampling

people selected to participate because they're easy to sample (standing outside walmart)

Multiple regression

predict 1 DV with multiple IVs



Hierarchical Regression

let us test complex hypothesis