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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
physical development
the growth of the body and it's organs, the functioning of physiological systems, physical signs of aging, changes in motor abilities, and so on
cognitive development
changes and continuities in perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, and other mental processes
psychosocial development
changes and carryover in personal and interpersonal aspects of development, such as motives, emotion, personality traits and relationships, and roles played in the family and larger society
age grades
also called an age stratum; socially defined age groups in society
age norms
society's way of telling people how to act their age
social clock
a person's sense of when things should be done and when they are ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms
do age norms and meaning of age differ by culture and history?
yes, once a society has established age grades, it defines what people should and shouldn't do. They differ from culture to culture, and subculture to subculture
maturation (nature)
the biological unfolding of the individual according to a plan contained in the genes
environment (nurture)
all of the external, physical, and social conditions, stimuli and events that can affect us from crowded living quarters and polluted air to social interactions with family members
What are two sides of the debate regarding human development?
nature vs. nurture
What are the five environmental systems that influence and are influenced by the developing person?
The Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem
What is the microsystem?
an immediate physical and social environment in which the person interacts face to face with other people, whose influences are affected by them
What is the mesosystem?
consists of the interrelationship or linkages between two or more microsystems
What is the exosystem?
consists of linkages involving social settings that individuals do not experience directly but that can still influence their development
What is the macrosystem?
the larger cultural context in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded.
What is the chronosystem?
changes in people and their environments occur in a time frame and unfold in particular patterns or sequences over a person's lifetime
What are baby biographies? Who did them?
carefully recorded observations of the growth and development children by their parents over a period.; the first scientific investigations of development.
Who did baby biographies?
Charles Darwin
What were the problems with baby biographies?
Different baby biographers emphasized different aspects of their children's behavior, therefor they couldn't be compared
What is the case study method?
An in-depth examination of an individual that often involves compiling and analyzing information from a variety of sources, such as observation, testing, and interviewing
What is the main limitation of case studies?
conclusions based on a single case may not generalize to other individuals