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32 Cards in this Set

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Central Nervous System

consists of the nerves of the brain and spinal cord

Neuron

cell that receives and transmits signals through body and brain

Glial Cell

care-taker cell bring nutrient, remove waste

Dendrite

receives the chemical signal

Axon

carries the electrochemical signals

Myelin

the fatty tissue that insulates the axon

Action Potential

exchange of sodium and potassium ions creates electrical wave down axon

Afferent Neuron

carries the sensory and internal organ signals in to brain

Efferent Neurons

carries the signals from the brain out to muscles

Terminal

end of axon, holds neurotransmitters

Synapse

space between terminal and dendrites (fluid-filled)

Receptor Site

dendrite area where chemical can bond and activate next neuron

Serotonin

significant in sleep and perception (helps with waking up)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

inhibitory signal important in slowing nervous systems so you relax

Acetycholine

important in short term memory

Dopamine

control of muscle movement

Norepinephrin

causes general arousal making you feel alert, active

Peripheral Nervous System

nerves to and out from spinal cord

Somatic System

carries signals in to brain and out to muscles (carries pain signal in the sore knee to the spine and brain)

Autonomic System

carries signals to and from organs to maintain body function (carries signal to gland to release hormones)

Electroenephalograph

(EEG) records strength/frequency of electrical activity in neurons

Positronic Emissions Tomography

(PET scan) using a mild radioactive glucose, records if neuron is biochemically activiate

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(MRI) expose brain to radio waves in a magnetic field and records blood flow

Computer Axial Tomography

(CAT scan) computer combines multiple x-rays to form a 3D structural view [can see inside brain]

Pons

involved in sleep/waking, and attentiveness

Medulla

involved in heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure

Cerebellum

develops with practice to control learned/coordinated movement (walking, riding a bike)

Reticular Activating System

(RAS) important in sleep, arousal, and attention; especially it alerts mid-brain to attend to incoming signal (what wakes you up when your alarm goes off)

Thalamus

mid-brain structure receiving the alert signal and relays to appropriate areas of the cortex


~thinking about alarm clock


~looking at alarm clock


~getting up and walking

Hypothalamus

signals release in hormones in the body processes (elements of emotion and motivation; hunger and sex drive)

Amygdala

evaluate incoming signal, activates behavior and emotion (fight or flight)

Hippocampus

forming and accessing new memories of recent events (short term memory depends on hippocampus)