• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientific study of behavior and the mind
directly observable responses
internal states/processes that we infer from measurable responses
"We're all better than average"
Clinical Psychology
Sub-field of Psychology

Psychological model

Ph.D. or Psy.D.

Cannot prescribe drugs

Sub-field of medicine

Disease model


Can prescribe drugs

Psychodynamic Psych
Unconscious mind - Causal factors:

- Unknown motives and conflicts

- Defense mechanisms

- Childhood experiences

Freud - Psychoanalytic theory

Behavioral Psych
Stimulus-response. Causal factors:

- environmental stimuli

- consequences

- prior learning, habits

Watson, B.F. Skinner

Humanistic Psych
Human as free agent. Causal factors:

- Choice, responsibility

- Self-actualization

- Search for meaning

Rogers, Maslow

Cognitive Psych
human as thinker. Causal factors:

- attention, perception

Sociocultural Psych
Human in a social context. Causal factors:

- Socialization

- Current social environment

- attitudes, attributions

Biological Psych
Human animal. Causal factors:

- Brain processes

- Other bodily processes

- Genes

Study of relations between physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory/perceptual experiences they produce
Hoffman's study
What is the absolute threshold for detecting horizontal acceleration?
Bidirectionality problem
Does X cause Y or does Y cause X?
Internal validity
Can we draw clear, causal conclusions? Plausible alternative explanations?
External validity
Do results generalize to other populations and settings?
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain, Spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Neural tissue beyond the CNS

Includes: Somatic NS, Autonomic NS,

Somatic Nervous System
Skeletal muscle, sensory info to CNS
Autonomic Nervous System
Smooth muscle of Internal organs. Includes: Sympathetic NS, Parasympathetic NS
Sympathetic Nervous System
arousal, "fight or flight"
Parasympathetic Nervous System
relax (return to baseline)
Glial Cells ("Glia")
Purpose: to support neurons

- supply oxygen and nutrients

- aid in waste disposal

Major part of neuron. Specialized for receiving input from other neurons
Soma (cell body)
Major part of neuron. Contains nucleus; regulates cell's life functions
Axon Hillock
Major part of neuron. Location at which input from other neurons is integrated
Major part of neuron. Carries a neural impulse to the end of the neuron (i.e., to the axon terminals).
Myelin Sheath and Nodes of Ranvier
Major part of neuron. Increase the speed of a neural impulse
Axon terminals
Major part of neuron. Manufacture, store, and release neurotransmitters (Nts)
Resting potential
~70 mv
Excitatory input
Makes the neuron's electrical potential less negative
Inhibitory input
makes the neuron's electrical potential more negative
Action potential
reversal of polarity ~40mv
Action potential threshold
~50 mv
Presynaptic neuron
sends messages (Nts)
Postsynaptic neuron
receives messages
5 Basic steps:

- Synthesis

- Storage

- Release

- Binding

- Deactivation

Nts are reabsorbed into the presynaptic axon terminals
Seven Major ones of these:

- Serotonin

- Norepinephrine

- Acetylcholine (ACh)


- Glutamate

- Endorphins

- Dopamine

Major neurotransmitter. Sleep, appetite, arousal, mood
Major neurotransmitter. Learning, appetite, arousal, memory.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Major neurotransmitter. Memory, movement.
GABA (gamma-amino-butyric-acid)
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Major neurotransmitter. Pain inhibition.
Major neurotransmitter. Learning, arousal, movement, pleasure
Amphetamines and Cocaine
- Stimulants

- Increase activity of dopamine (DA), Norepinephrine (NE):

* inhibit reuptake

* amph also cause presynaptic neurons to realease more DA, NE

- "Amphetamine Psychosis"

- antipsychotic drugs: decrease DA activity

- depressant

- increase GABA activity, DA

- decrease glutamate activity

- Net effect: increase inhibitory Nt + decrease excitatory Nt = neural suppression

Left Hemisphere of Brain
Overall, this hemisphere is more dominant for:

- Language

- tasks involving logic

- planning sequences

- experiencing our own positive emotions

Right Hemisphere of Brain
Overall, this hemisphere is more dominant for:

- Spacial tasks

- recognizing faces

- emotional expressions

- melodies

- mental imagery

- experiencing our own negative emotions

Brain's capacity to modify, reorganize itself
A stimulus is detected by a sensory receptor
The stimulus is converted into a neural code that is sent to the brain
The brain organizes and interprets the neural code; gives it meaning
Absolute threshold
lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be identified correctly 50% of the time
Difference threshold
Smallest difference (for a particular property) between two stimuli that people can detect 50% of the time
Bottom-up Processing
Individual elements of a stimulus are examined and combined into a "whole" (i.e. unified perception).
Top-down processing
Our prior experiences, knowledge, and expectations influence how we perceive a stimulus
Figure-ground relations
Our tendency to organize stimuli into a central foreground and background
Our tendency to organize stimuli into a central foreground and background
Perceptual Set (mental set)
readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
The mind and the body(brain) are one, and thus mental events are a product of physical events
Depth perception
Specific genetic makeup of the individual
The individual's observable characteristics
Polygenic Transmission
A number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotypic trait.
Changes in gene expression that are independent of the DNA itself and are caused instead by environmental factors.
Absolute refractory period
the membrane is not excitable and cannot discharge another impulse