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197 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The loss of memory.
Amnesia
memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events.
anterograde amnesia
The view that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
A special form of episodic memory consisting of a person's recollections of his or her life experiences.
autobiographical memory
The theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory.
connectionism (parallel distributed processing [PDP])
Theory stating that when something new is learned, a neurochemical memory trace is formed, but over time this trace tends to disintegrate.
decay theory
Extensiveness of processing at any given level of memory.
Elaboration
The process by which information gets into memory storage.
Encoding
The retention of information about the where, when, and what of life's happenings.
episodic memory
The conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.
explicit memory (declarative memory)
The memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall more accurately and vividly than everyday events.
flashbulb memory
Memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without that experience being consciously recollected.
implicit memory (nondeclarative memory)
Theory stating that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
interference theory
The idea that coding occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory.
levels of processing
A relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time.
long-term memory
The retention of information over time the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Memory
Specific visual and/or verbal memory aids.
Mnemonics
An act of forgetting something because it is so painful or anxiety-laden that remembering it is intolerable.
motivated forgetting
A type of implicit memory process involving the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.
Priming
Situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later.
proactive interference
Memory for skills.
procedural memory
Remembering information about doing something in the future.
prospective memory
The memory process of taking information out of storage.
Retrieval
Situation in which material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier.
retroactive interference
A memory disorder that involves memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events.
retrograde amnesia
Remembering the past.
retrospective memory
A concept or framework that already exists at a given moment in a person's mind and that organizes information and provides a structure for interpreting it.
Schema
A schema for an event.
Script
A person's knowledge about the world.
semantic memory
Information from the world that is held in its original form only for an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses.
sensory memory
The tendency for items at the beginning and at the end of a list to be recalled more readily than those in the middle of the list.
serial position effect
A limited-capacity memory system in which information is retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless strategies are used to retain it longer.
short-term memory
Retention of information over time and the representation of information in memory.
Storage
The "effortful retrieval" that occurs when people are confident that they know something but cannot pull it out of memory.
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT state)
A three-part system that temporarily holds information as people perform cognitive tasks.
working memory
Strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem.
Algorithms
Directly confronting a problem with active attempts to solve it.
approach coping
A prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events.
availability heuristic
Coping with a problem by trying one's best to ignore it.
avoidant coping
Model stating that all instances of a concept share defining properties.
classical model
The way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing.
Cognition
Individuals' interpretation of the events in their lives as harmful, threatening, or challenging and their determination of whether they have the resources to cope effectively with the events.
cognitive appraisal
Mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
Concepts
The tendency to search for and use information that supports, rather than refutes, our ideas.
confirmation bias
Thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the type of thinking required on traditional intelligence tests.
convergent thinking
Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress.
Coping
The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unconventional solutions to problems.
Creativity
Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
decision making
Reasoning from the general to the specific.
deductive reasoning
Thinking that produces many answers to the same question; characteristic of creativity.
divergent thinking
Responding to the emotional aspects of stress rather than focusing on the problem causing the stress.
emotion-focused coping
The quality of having a particular talent—that "something special"—for the things that one does in a particular domain.
Expertise
Using a prior problem-solving strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective.
Fixation
A type of fixation in which individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functions.
functional fixedness
Shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest, but do not guarantee, a solution to a problem.
Heuristics
The tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome.
hindsight bias
Reasoning from the specific to the general or from the bottom-up.
inductive reasoning
The ability to produce an infinite number of sentences using a relatively limited set rules.
infinite generativity
A form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.
Language
Being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities.
Mindfulness
A language's rules for word formation.
Morphology
Being receptive to the possibility of other ways of looking at things.
open-mindedness
An approach to learning to read that emphasizes basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
phonics approach
A language's sound system.
Phonology
An attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily available.
problem solving
The cognitive strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them.
problem-focused coping
Model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a "family resemblance."
prototype model
The mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions.
Reasoning
The meaning of words and sentences in a particular language.
Semantics
Setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems in order to be in a better position to reach the final goal or solution.
Subgoaling
A language's rules for the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
syntax
Manipulating information mentally, as when we form concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and reflect in a creative or critical manner.
thinking
An approach to learning to read that stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child's natural language learning; so reading materials should be whole and meaningful.
whole-language approach
The class of sex hormones that predominate in males; they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females.
Androgens
An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
anorexia nervosa
A model emphasizing that the key to the adaptiveness of positive emotional states lies in their effects on our attention and our ability to build resources.
broaden-and-build model
An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.
bulimia nervosa
Theory stating that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
Cannon-Bard theory
The release of anger or aggressive energy by directly or vicariously engaging in anger or aggression
Catharsis
Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
display rules
An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.
Drive
Feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression.
Emotion
The main class of female sex hormones, produced principally by the ovaries.
Estrogens
Motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
extrinsic motivation
The idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
facial feedback hypothesis
Maslow's view that individuals' main needs are satisfied in the following sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
hierarchy of needs
The body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state.
Homeostasis
Identified by Masters and Johnson, the four phases of physical reactions that occur in humans as a result of sexual stimulation. These phases are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
human sexual response pattern
An innate (unlearned), biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species.
Instinct
Motivation that is based on internal factors such as organismic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), as well as curiosity, challenge, and effort.
intrinsic motivation
Theory stating that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
James-Lange theory
The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
Motivation
A deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
Need
A machine that monitors bodily changes thought to be influenced by emotional states; it is used by examiners to try to determine whether someone is lying.
Polygraph
The highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs; the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being.
self-actualization
A theory of motivation that proposes that three basic, organismic needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) characterize intrinsic motivation.
self-determination theory
The process by which an organism pursues important objectives, centrally involving getting feedback about how we are doing in our goal pursuits.
self-regulation
The weight maintained when no effort is made to gain or lose weight.
set point
The direction of the person's erotic interests, whether heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
sexual orientation
Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two main factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
two-factor theory of emotion
Principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high arousal.
Yerkes-Dodson law
the retention of information or experience over time
memory
focousing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others
selective attention
relating material to your own experinece
self-reference
levels of processing
shallow, intermediate, deep processing
allan paivio created a hypothesis that claims that memory for pictures is better tahn memory for words because picures are stored both as image codes and verbal codes called __
dual code hyothesis
referes to auditory sensory memory which is retained for up to several seconds
echoic memory
refers to visual sensory memory which is retained only for about 1/4 of a second
iconic memory
the number of digits an individual cna report back in order after a single presentation of them
memory span
two ways to improve short term memory
chunking and rehersal
involves grouping or "packing" information that exceeds the 7+/-2 memory span into higher order thinking units that can be remembered as sub units
chunking
the conscious repetition of information
rehearsal
3 components of Baddeleys model of working memory
-phonological loop briefly store speech based info
-visuospatial woring memory stores visual and spatial info
-central executive integrates info from phonolocial loop and visuospatial working memory and from long term memory
locations of neural activity
nodes
if two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them and thus the memory may be strengthened
long term potentiation
episodic memories are stored in the __
frontal lobe
emotional memories are stored in the __
amygdala
explicit memory, priming is done in the __
temporal lobes & hippocampus
implicit memory is housed in the __
cerebellum
the ability to better recall for items at the beginning of a list
primacy effect
refers to the ability to better recall items form the end of a list
recency effect
a memory task in which teh individual only has to identify learned items
recognition
states that info present at teh time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue
encoding specificity principle
memory that is better recalled when people attempt to recall it in the same context in which they learned it
context-dependant memory
the effect that adults remember more events from teh second and third decades of life than from other decades
reminiscence bump
the most abstract level of autobiographical memory
life time periods
the middle level of autobiographical memory
general events
the most concrete level of autobiographical memory
event-specific knowledge
a defense mechanism by which a person is so traumatized by an event that he or she forgets it and then forgets the act of forgetting
repression
occurs when information was never entered into long term memory
encoding failure
the first psychologist to conduct scientific research on forgetting
hermann ebbinghaus
prospective memory involves __ and __
timng and content
our intention to engage in a given behavior after a specified amount of time has gone by.
time based prostpective memory
engaging in inted behavior when some external event or cue elicits it
event based memory
hypothesis by benjamin whorf that stated languae determines the way we think
linguistic relativity hypothesis
argued that humans come into the world biologically prewired to learn language at a certian time and in a certain way
noam chomsky
endlessly repeating sounds and syllables such as bababa or dadada
babbiling
babbiling begins a the age of __
4-6 monthes
cooing starts at __
birth
first words are at __
10-13 monthes
children can utter 2 word statements by __
18-24 monthes
the study of animal behavior
ethology
something in teh enviornment that turns on a fixed pattern of behavior
sign stimulus
explains that as a drive becomes stronger, we are moivated to reduce it
drive reduction theory
the state of feeling full
saiety
controls gluocse lovels
insulin
released by fat cells, responsible for feeling full
leptin
the brain aspect involved in stimulating eating
lateral hypothalamus
the brain aspect involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating
ventromedial hypothalamus
the belief that you have the competance to accomplish a given goal or task
self-efficacy
the sense that you can gain skills and over come obstalbes
mastery
the three needs of teh self determination theory
-competence
-relatedness
-autonomy
the intention to accomplish a goal that is menaingful to oneself and to contribute something to the world
purpose
takes messages to and from teh bodies internal organs
autonomic nervous sytem
involved in body arousal
sympathetic nerbous system
the __ nervous system calms the body
parasympathetic
refers to whether an emotion feels pleasant or unpleasant
valence
the degree to which emotin is erflecting in teh individuals being ative, engaged, or excited versus more passive, relatively disenggaged, or calm
arousal level
the colored wheel of different valence emitonal states
the circumplex model of mood
the ability to come bounce back from negative experiences
resilience
the idea that any aspect of life that enhances one's positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short amount of time because individuals generally adapt rapidly to any life chance that influences happiness
hedonic treadmil
the __ states that behaving angrily or watching others behave angrily reduces subsequent anger.
catharsis hypothesis
__ is a kind of mental "workbench" on which information is manipulated and assembled to help individuals perform other cognitive tasks.
Working memory
Memory is better when encoding happens at which level of processing?
deepest level
Most people can keep _____ items in their short-term memory.
7 ± 2
Your memory of Civil War history is an example of what type of memory?
semantic memory
Remembering is better when a person's mood at encoding is similar to their mood at retrieval. This is an example of
state-dependent memory.
A student is studying for a philosophy exam. She is trying to remember a list of philosophy concepts and associates each one with a personal event in her life. Which of the following is she employing?
elaboration
A middle-school teacher places words such as "calm"and "success" on the walls of his classroom to impact the behavior and achievement of his students. What memory process is he using?
priming
Which theory of long-term memory organization focuses on interconnected nodes that either excite or inhibit one another?
connectionist networks
Smells can evoke vivid memories because the olfactory cortex links to the _____, which is associated with memory.
hippocampus
In high school, a student took German; however, she decided to take Russian in college. She finds that she is having trouble learning to speak Russian because she keeps using German words instead of Russian words. What type of problem is she experiencing?
proactive interference
How are a schema and a script different?
A script is a specific type of schema that focuses on events, whereas other types of schemas focus on a variety of experiences.
T/F Information that is processed more elaborately will be better remembered.
True
T/F Photographic memory is relatively common.
false
T/F The ways in which people construct their autobiographic memories are related to their well-being and happiness.
True
T/F Eyewitness testimony tends to be accurate.
False
T/F Reading can help to prevent some of the negative effects of Alzheimer disease.
True
In terms of memory encoding, focusing on more than one thing simultaneously is called.
divided attention
determining whether something is a flower if it is similar to a rose would be following which model of cognition?
prototype model
Trying the same technique repeatedly to solve a problem is called
fixation.
Consider the word driving. The d sound is known as a _____, while the suffix -ing is known as a _____.
phoneme, morpheme
Deductive reasoning is __
top down
inductive reasoning is __
bottom up
The __ hemisphere of the brain does not comprehend grammar or syntax.
right
refers to young children's utterances of two-word statements that convey meaning.
Telegraphic speech
Failing to realize that a knife can be used as a flat-head screwdriver is an example of.
functional fixedness
What is the main difference between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?
Individuals with bulimia nervosa are within a normal weight range.
The word affect refers to
emotion
Research on the facial feedback hypothesis provides support for which theory of emotion?
James-Lange theory
The two-dimensional approach to emotion states that emotions can be classified as __
positive affect or negative affect.
Positive emotions are linked to healthy immune functioning because happy emotions are related to the release of __
immunoglobulin A.
Long-term goals are known as __ goals.
proximal
A person who controls what he or she eats and who may have a tendency to binge eat is a(n).
restrained eater
Successfully pursuing goals is called.
self-regulation
refers to increases in the skin's electrical conductivity.
Galvanic skin response
Enzo takes Vendela to see a horror movie on their first date. He knows that people who feel strong emotions rely on situational cues to label the emotion. He hopes that the film will increase the activity in Vendela's nervous system and that she will interpret the arousal as attraction to him. Enzo is relying on the
two-factor theory of emotion.