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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
psychology
use of systematic methods to observe human behavior and draw conclusions
psychology as a science
the use of systematic methods to observe the natural world, including human behavior, and to draw conclusions
science
everything we do that can be directly observed
behavior
the thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly
mental processes
the processes of reflecting deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence
critical thinking
challenging whether a supposed fact is really true
skepticism
information that is couched in scientific terminology but is not supported by sound scientific research
pseudoscience
one of the best ways to be objective
apply the empirical method to learn about the world
gaining knowledge through the observation of events, the collection of data, and logical reasoning
empirical method
waiting to see what evidence tells us rather than going with our hunches
objectivity
psychologists that specialize in studying and treating psychological disorders
clinical psychologists
a branch of psychology that emphasizes human strengths
positive psychology
German philosopher-physician, founded the first psychology laboratory (w/co-workers) in 1879 at the University of Leipzig to measure the time lag between the instant a person heard a sound and the moment he or she pressed a telegraph key to signal having heard it
William Wundt (1832-1920)
wundt's approach to discovering the basic elements, or structures, of mental processes; so called because of its focus on identifying the structures of the human mind
structuralism
father of functionalism
william james
james's approach to mental processes, emphasizing the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the environment
functionalism
what is the core question to functionalism?
why is human thought adaptive
an evolutionary process organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and importantly produce offspring
natural selection
an approach to psychology focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system
biological approach
the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system, emphasizing that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion
neuroscience
an approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants
behavioral approach
focuses on an organism's visible interactions with the environment. not thoughts or feelings
behaviorists
-empasized psychology should be about what people do (actions and behaviors) and should not concern itself with things that connot be seen (thoughts and feelings)
-behaviorist who kept his daughter in an enclosed Air-Crib to study her actions
B. F. Skinner
B. F. Skinner believed that __ and __ determined our behavior
rewards and punishments
an approach to psychology emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives (such as the drive for sex) and society's demands, and early childhood family experiences
psychodynamic approach
-founding father of psychodynamic approach
-theorized that early relationships with parents shape an individual's personality
sigmund freud
therapeutic technique that involves an analyst's unlocking a person's unconscious conflicts by talking with the individual about his/her childhood memories as wells as the individuals dreams, thoughts, and feeling
psychoanalysis
an approach to psychology emphasizing a persons positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny
humnaistic approach
unselfish concern for other peoples well-being
altruism
rogers and maslow were two __ psychologists
humanistic
an approach to psychology emphasizing the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems
cognitive approach
the ways that the human mind interprets incoming information, weighs it, stores it, and applies it to decision making
information processing
view the mind as an active and aware problem-solving system
cognitive psychologists
an approach to psychology emphasizing evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors
evolutionary approach
believes their approach provides an umbrella that unifies the diverse fields of psychology
evolutionary psychologists
an approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior
sociocultural approach
the seven contemporary approaches to psychology
-biological
-behavioral
-psychodynamic
-humanistic
-cognitive
-evolutionary
-sociocultural
the scientific study of psychological disorders and the development of diagnostic categories and treatments for those disorders
psychopathology
researchers interested in the physical processes that underlie mental operations such as vision and memory
physiological psychology and behavioral neuroscience
researchers who focus on the physical systems and psychological processes that allow us to experience the world
sensation and perception specialists
the intricate process by which behavior changes to adapt to changing circumstances
learning
the field of psychology that examines attention, consciousness, information processing, and memory
cognitive psychology
concerned with how people become who they are, from conception to death
developmental psychology
studies psychological, social, and cultural influences on women's development and behavior
women and gender psychologist
studies personality, consisting of the relatively enduring characteristics of individuals
personality psychology
deals with peoples interactions with one another, relationships, social perceptions, social cognitions, and attitudes
social psychology
the most widely practiced specialization in psychology
clinical and counseling psychology
a multidimensional approach to human health that emphasizes psychological factors, lifestyle, and the nature of the healthcare delivery system
health psychology
concentrates on improving the quality of relationships among individuals, their community, and society at large
community psychology
the five steps of the scientific method
1. observing some phenomenon
2. formulating hypotheses and predictions
3. testing through empirical research
4. drawing conclusions
5. evaluating the theory
anything that can change
variable
a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations and to make predictions about future observations
theory
an educated guess that derives logically from a theory; a prediction that can be tested
hypothesis
a definition that provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study
operational definition
genuine smiling
duchenne smiling
all the information researchers collect in a study
data
a theory that says people are likely to be fulfilled when their lives meet three important needs: relatedness, autonomy, and competence.
self-determination theory
a conclusion must be able to be __
replicated
a method that allows researchers to combine the results of several different studies on a similar topic in order to establish the strength of effect
meta-analysis
research that determines the basic dimensions of a phenomenon defining what it is, how often it occurs, and so on
descriptive research
research concerning establishing casual relationships between variables
experimental research
methods of descriptive research
-observation
-surveys
-interviews
-case studies
presents a standard set of questions, or items, to obtain people's self reported attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic
survey
what is a shortcoming of surveys?
-can only measure what people think about themselves (bad for psychodynamic approach)
-people dont always know the truth themselves
an in-depth look at a single individual
case study/case history
descriptive research allows researchers to get a sense of a subject of interest but it cannot answer questions about __
how and why things are teh way they are
research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together
correlational research
the degree of relationship between two variables is expressed as a numerical value called a __
correlational coefficient (r)
the value of a correlation always falls between __ and __
-1.00 and +1.00
the number or magnitude of the correlation tells us about the __ of the relationship
strength
the sign (+ or -) tells us about the __ of the relationship
direction
the circumstance where a variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between two other variables. (also known as confounds)
third variable problem
a special kind of systematic observatio, used by correlational researchers, that involves obtaining measures of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time
longitudinal design
a carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable
experiment
researchers assignment of participants to groups by chance, to reduce the likelihood that an experiemtns results will be due to preexisting differences between groups
random assignment
a manipulated experimental factor; the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are.
independent variable
a person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated
confederate
the outcome; the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
dependent variable
independent variable=
cause
dependent variable=
effect
the participants in an experiment who receive the drug or other treatment under study--that is, those who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents
experimental group
the participants in an experiment who are as much like the experimental group as possible and who are treated in every way like the experimental group except for a manipulated factor, the independent variable
control group
the soundness of the conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment
validity
teh degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the real-world issues it is supposed to address
external validity
the degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable
internal validity
occurs when the experimenter's expectations influence the outcome of the research
experimenter bias
any aspects of a study that communicate to the participants how the experimenter wants them to behave
demand characteristics
occurs when the behavior of research participants during the experiment is influenced by how they think they are supposed to behave or their expectations about what is happening to them
research participant bias
occurs when participants expectations, rather than the experimental treatment, produce an outcome
placebo effect
in a drug study, a harmless substance that has no physiological effect, given to participants in a control group so that they are treated identically to the experimental group except for the active agent
placebo
an experimental design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated
double-blind experiment
the entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions
population
the subset of population chosen by the investigator for study
sample
a sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected
random sample
the observation of behavior in a real world setting
naturalistic observation
mathematical procedures that are used to describe and summarize sets of data in a meaningful way
descriptive statistics
a single number that indicates the overall characteristics of a set of data (mean, median, mode)
measure of central tendancy
a measure of central tendency that is the average for a sample
mean
a measure of central tendency that is the middle score in a sample
median
a measure of central tendency that is the most common scare in a sample
mode
describe how much the score in a sample differ from one another
measures of dispersion
a measure of dispersion that is the difference between the highest and lowest score
range
a measure of dispersion that tells us how much scores in a sample differ from the mean of the sample
standard deviation
mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether results for a sample are likely to generalize to a population
inferential statistics
the APA's guidelines for ethical research
1. informed consent
2. debriefing
3. deception
using daily journaling for correlational research
experience sampling method (ESM)
a correlational research method that asks participants to complete a report each time they engage in a particular behavior
event-contigent responding
systematic biases (experimenter and research participant bias)
confounds
in psychological research the standard is that if the dds are 5 out of 100 (or .05) or less that the differences are due to chance, the results are considered __
statistically significant