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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Melatonin is manufactured by the:
pineal gland
In response to bright morning light:
the suprachiasmatic nucleus causes the pineal gland to decrease production of melatonin.
Exposure to sunlight and other bright lights:
suppresses the production of melatonin
REM is an acronym that stands for:
rapid eye movements
As you are reading this question, you are awake and alert. This meanswer that your brain is generating _____ brain waves.


After turning out the light for the night, your head hits the pillow. Gradually, your muscles relax and drowsiness occurs. This drowsy yet wakeful state is associated with _____ brain waves.


Shortly after going to bed and as you are falling asleep, you experience the vividly realistic sensation that you are falling or tripping forward, which jolts you awake. This vivid sensation is a common example of:
a hypnagogic hallucination
The presence of sleep spindles and K complexes are the defining characteristics of:
stage 2 NREM sleep
You've been lying awake next to your bed partner for about five minutes. As you hear the other person's breathing become rhythmical, you notice occasional slight twitches in your partner's hand and leg. Most likely, your bed partner is in:
stage 2 NREM
As you are taking this test right now, you are aware of your thoughts, sensations, memories, and different aspects of the surrounding environment. Collectively, this awareness is referred to as:
The term circadian rhythm refers to the:
consistent, daily fluctuations in many biological and psychological processes.
Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus located?
in the hypothalamus in the brain
Keeping circadian rhythms synchronized and operating on a 24-hour schedule:
involves the detection of sunlight by special photoreceptors in the eye and the communication of this information to the brain
As you are being monitored by sleep researchers, almost all of your brain activity comprises delta brain waves. This is a clear sign that you are in:
stage 4 NREM
Sleepwalking typically occurs during:
stage 4 NREM
Observing a subject who is in REM sleep, a sleep researcher can conclude that all of the following are true of the subject EXCEPT:
the subject's heart rate and blood pressure reach their lowest levels
Dreaming usually takes place during _____ sleep and is typically accompanied by _____.
REM; physiological arousal, brain activity, and rapid movement of the eyes
According to the information discussed in the In Focus box titled “What You Really Want to Know About Sleep,” which of the following statements is TRUE?
A naturally occurring compound called adenosine seems to be involved in producing sleepiness
Which of the following seems to be involved in causing sleepiness?
high blood levels of adenosine
Don drinks a cup or two of strong coffee in the morning to help him wake up and get rid of his sleepiness. According to the In Focus box titled “What You Really Want to Know About Sleep,” the common stimulant drug in coffee, caffeine, blocks receptors for a naturally occurring compound in the body called _____, promoting wakefulness.
The cycles of NREM sleep and REM sleep begin:
during fetal development
By the time children are 5 years old:
the typical 90-minute sleep cycles of alternating REM and NREM are established
Ted went without sleep for two days in order to study for a final exam. Ted can expect to experience:
very brief episodes of sleep called microsleeps that occur during wakefulness
According to Focus on Neuroscience: The Sleep-Deprived Emotional Brain, which of the following is TRUE?
People often react with greater emotionality when they're not getting adequate sleep.
A couple of times during the night, you awaken slightly. Each time you awaken, you're aware of vague mental images that reflect a conversation you and your boss had about resolving a problem at work. These bland, thought like ruminations about real events are best described as:
sleep thinking
Vague, bland, thought like ruminations about real-life events that usually occur during NREM slow-wave sleep are characteristic of:
sleep thinking
An unfolding sequence of perceptions, thoughts, and emotions during sleep (usually REM), that is experienced as a series of real-life events is a description of:
a dream
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding dreams?
People usually have four or five dreaming episodes each night.The first REM episode of the night is the shortest, lasting only about 10 minutes.Early morning dreams, which can last for 40 minutes or longer, are the dreams most likely to be remembered.ALL OF THESE statements are true regarding dreams.
During REM sleep, a dreamer tends to uncritically accept the seemingly illogical and occasionally bizarre details of his or her dreams. In terms of brain functioning, what seems to account for this?
The frontal lobes are essentially shut down during REM sleep
Dreams that are most likely to be remembered are:
early morning dreams, which can last 40 minutes or longer
Which of the following statements about brain activity during sleep is TRUE?
There is no abrupt change from NREM to REM sleep; instead, each 90-minute cycle of NREM and REM sleep reflects the gradual changing balance of REM-off and REM-on neuronal activity
NREM slow-wave sleep contributes to:
forming new episodic memories
REM sleep and NREM stage 2 sleep seem to help in the formation of new:
procedural memories
Memories involved in learning a new skill or task that are consolidated during REM and NREM stage 2 sleep, are:
procedural memories
Most dreams:
reflect the daily concerns of the dreamer
Vivid and disturbing dreams that often awaken the sleeper and typically involve feelings of helplessness or powerlessness in the face of being aggressively attacked or pursued are called:
What is a lucid dream?
It is a dream in which you become aware that you are dreaming while you are still asleep
Sheena was describing a dream she had about her psychology class to a friend. “During the dream, I realized it was dream, and I didn't like the way the dream was going so I went back to the beginning of the dream and started it over,” she explained to her astonished friend. What had Sheena experienced?
a lucid dream
Current research concludes that dreams:
reflect the waking concerns and preoccupations of the dreamer and the active process of trying to make sense of stimuli produced by the brain during sleep
Accordingto Freud, the term manifest content refers to:
the elements of a dream that are consciously experiencedand remembered by the dreamer.
Elaine remembers a dream in which a car was parked in front of her house and a man with a baseball bat kept getting in and out of the car. According to Sigmund Freud's theory, the specific dream details that Elaine remembers are called the _____ content.


Elaine is sitting in Sigmund Freud's office and tells him that she remembers a dream in which a car was parked in front of her house and a man with a baseball bat kept getting in and out of the car. After some discussion, Freud suggests to Elaine that the baseball bat probably symbolized the man's penis and the action of repeatedly entering the car probably symbolized sexual intercourse. The symbolic meaning of the dream that Freud suggested is called the _____ content.


Which of the following statements best captures Sigmund Freud's view of dreaming?
Dream imagery is a symbolic expression of repressed urges, wishes, and desires.
Which of the following people said that dreams are the “disguised fulfillment of repressed wishes” and provide “the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious mind”?
Sigmund Freud, author of The Interpretation of Dreams
In psychoanalytic theory, the disguised, symbolic meaning of dreams is called the:
latent content
Sleep disorders involve:
consistently occurring abnormal sleep patterns that cause subjective distress and interfere with a person's daytime functioning.
Consistently occurring abnormal sleep patterns that cause subjective distress and interfere with a person's daytime functioning is a definition of:
a sleep disorder
Dyssomnias are:
sleep disorders involving disruptions in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep.
Rashid experiences consistent abnormal sleep patterns that cause subjective distress and interfere with his daytime functioning. It is most likely that Rashid would be classified as having:
a sleep disorder
Sleep disorders involving disruptions in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep, that include insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy, are called:
Parasomnias are:
sleep disorders characterized by arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transweritions and include sleep terrors, sleep sex, sleepwalking, sleep-related eating disorder, and REM-sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep disorders involving undesirable physical arousal, behaviors, or events during sleep, or sleep transitions are called:
Matilda suffers from sleep-related eating disorder. She would be classified as suffering from a class of sleep disorder called:
a parasomnia
The parasomnias are:
sleep disorders that involve undesirable physical arousal, behaviors, or events during sleep, or sleep transitions
Tremaine complains about the quality or duration of his sleep, that he has difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep, and that he frequently wakes before it is time to get up. Tremaine has:
Insomnia is characterized as:
complaints about the quality or duration of sleep, the difficulty in going to sleep or staying asleep, or the waking before it is time to get up.
Along with handling job-related hassles, Mena is struggling to keep up with her night classes. As the pressure mounts, Mena finds that she is often unable to go to sleep at night or that she repeatedly wakes up during the night. Mena's sleep disturbance is best described as:
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is therapy used to treat _____ and involves a special mask and a machine that gently blows air into the sleeper's throat, keeping the airway from becoming too narrow or blocked.
obstructive sleep apnea
Mrs. Wilkinson notices that her middle-aged husband stops breathing in his sleep, awakens slightly to gulp in air, then goes back to sleep. This happens several times a night. Mr. Wilkinson is displaying symptoms of which of the following sleep disorders?
obstructive sleep apnea
Which of the following characterizes obstructive sleep apnea?
The sleeper repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
Tim suffers from overwhelming bouts of excessive daytime sleepiness and brief uncontrollable episodes of sleep, called microsleeps or sleep attacks. Tim has:
Narcolepsy is characterized by:
overwhelming bouts of excessive daytime sleepiness and brief, uncontrollable episodes of sleep, which are called microsleeps or sleep attacks.
Neurotransmitters produced exclusively by neurons in the hypothalamus during the daytime to maintain a steady state of wakefulness are called:
hypocretins (orexins)
A parasomnia called _____ involves sharply increased physiological arousal, restlessness, sweating, a racing heart, and intense fear accompanied by a panic-stricken scream or cry for help with no recollection of the episode in the morning.
sleep terrors
Sleep terrors are the same as:
night terrors
Sleepsex is a parasomnia that involves:
abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences during sleep
A parasomnia that involves abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences during NREM stage 3 and 4 slow-wave sleep, such as masturbation, sleep-sex talking, groping or fondling their bed partner's genitals, or sexual intercourse, is called:


Sleepsex is also called:
Thomas has been diagnosed with a parasomnia that involves abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences during sleep. Thomas has a sleep disorder called:
sleepsex or sexsomnia
Sleepwalking, or somnambulism, is characterized by:
an episode of walking or performing other actions usually during NREM stage 3 or 4 slow-wave sleep
Somnambulism is also called:


Although he was fast asleep, 12-year-old Scott got out of bed and walked to the kitchen with slow but automatic movements and began to fumble with the lock on the back door. Scott has had a number of such _____ episodes and rarely remembers anything about them in the morning.
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) involves:
episodes of frequent sleepwalking to the kitchen and compulsive eating during stage 3 and 4 NREM slow-wave sleep, with no memory of the episodes upon awakening in the morning.
Rona has a sleep disorder that involves sleepwalking to the kitchen and compulsively eating, with no memory of the behavior in the morning. Rona has a:
parasomnia called sleep-related eating disorder.
The sleep disorder that is characterized by the person moving about and acting out his dreams is called:
REM sleep behavior disorder
Seventy-year-old Mr. Gregory has a sleep disorder caused by a failure of the brain mechanisms that normally suppress voluntary actions during REM sleep, and he verbally and physically responds to an unfolding dream story. He remembers what happens in vivid detail upon awakening. Gregory suffers from:
REM sleep behavior disorder
Which of the following best defines hypnosis?
It is a cooperative social interaction in which the hypnotized person responds to the hypnotist's suggestions.
The best candidates for hypnosis are people who:
can easily become immersed in fantasy and imaginary experiences
Compared to adults, children are:
more responsive to hypnosis
A hypnotist instructed Hermione that when she came out of hypnosis, she would be unable to spell her own name. This is an example of:
a posthypnotic suggestion
According to the text discussion, age regression:
is the use of hypnosis to recall or reexperience an earlier time in the lifespan
Troubled by various psychological symptoms, Carmen decides to ask her therapist to hypnotize her and take her back to her earliest memories to see if she experienced some kind of traumatic event that might explain her current problems. The notion that hypnosis can allow you to relive early childhood experiences is called:
age regression
The attempt to use hypnosis to recall or re-experience an earlier developmental period is called:
age regression