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21 Cards in this Set

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the key to information processing in the nervous system is

relative charge: the inside of a neurone is negatively charged compared to the outside (about -70mV)

what happens when the neurotransmitter binds with the specialised receptors on the post-synaptic density?

a graded potential is created

5 ways drugs can affect neurotransmitters

- synthesis


- storage


- release


- binding


- reuptake

2 agonists and 2 antagonists of cholinergic synapses

- agonists are nicotine, black widow spider venom


- antagonists are scopolamine and botulinum toxin

what are the characteristics of Parkinson's disease



tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), postural instability, dystonia (muscle spasms and abnormal posture), dyskinesia (impairment of voluntary movement), and shuffling, wide-based gait that can lead to festination (trouble with balance)

characteristics of Schizophrenia

positive symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganised thinking




negative symptoms: blunted affect (reduced emotional response), poverty of speech and thought, apathy




cognitive symptoms: poor working memory, disruption in executive function and attention

How are Parkinson's and Schizophrenia related?


(include drug information)

- Through the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine antagonists have anti-schizophrenic effects and Parkinsonian symptoms.


- PD is associated with the degeneration of the substantia nigra - a midbrain nucleus with output neurones that release dopamine


- PD can be treated using dopamine agonists e.g bromocriptine and L-dopa (also amphetamine and cocaine)


- These dopamine agonists cause schizophrenic episodes in normal individuals



The actions of some psycho active drugs at the synapse:




coffee

adenosine antagonist



marijuana

THC receptor agonist



LSD

suppresses serotonergic neurones

prozac

serotonin reuptake inhibitor



ecstasy (MDMA)

serotonin agonist



cocaine

dopamine agonist

amphetamine

dopamine agonist

designer drugs

analogs of some of the above

which two structures consist of the human 'reward system'?

ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens

intracranial self stimulation (ICSS)

- appears to produce pleasurable sensations in animals and humans


- activates dopaminergic pathways including VTA and nucleus accumbens



agonist

drugs that bind to the receptor of a cell and trigger a response by the cell

indirect agonist

enhances the release or action of an endogenous neurotransmitter



antagonists

block or suppress agonist-mediated responses

what does TTX tetrodotoxin do

blocks the ion flow through channels that generate action potentials