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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
broca's aphasia
L pars opercularis and part of trangularis
L ventral pre-central gyrus
L insula
basal ganglia (subcortical necessary for motor parts of langage)
damage to superior medial artery/middle cerebral artery (supply of lateral cortex) = upper division syndrome
wernicke aphasia
comprehension aphasia
speech without sense
superior temporal gyrus
L angular gyrus
comprehension of visual imputs
L supramarginal gyrus
agraphias ; posteriorly PURE
ideomotor apraxia/ideational
somatosensory disorders
pre-central gyrus = speech apraxia (section 6)
post-central gyrus = ventral object streams for somatosensory information
-SI to SII to insula to entorhinal cortex
transcortical aphasia
all surroundings but the langage areas are destroyed (no mind)
can repeat and even learn but no cognition; no spontaenous
sodium amytal test
PROVIDE best info about where language is (inactivate 1hemis)
infarction of broca's area
mutism and migrate to an apraxia (no aggramatism)
primary motor association cortex
6vc = central coloum (posterior)
6vr = ventrorostral ; where are mirror neurons.
connected to area 4
dysgranular frontal area
intermediate motor cognitive. btw 44 and 6 ; typical prefrontal cortex
-planning and execute movements (cognitive functions)
-layer 4 begin to emerge
granular frontal xortex
area 45 ; good layer 4
monkey arcuate sulcus
f4 = 6vc
f5= 6vr
motor 4= f1
44 is a cognitive center
45 = retrieval of information ccenter
secondary somatosensory area: dorsal sylvian fissure (fronto-parietal operculum)
ideomotor apraxia
supramarginal area
-cannot understand motor related instructions (but each are ok alone)
-disconnesction syndrome
somatosensory disorders
supramarginal : code xomplex combinations of somatosensory informtion
rostral posterior parietal lobules
movement, reaching, writing regions
receptive fields
smaller in straite cortex, bigger towards AIT and become less retinotopic organised
v4 neurons
code colors; only respond to little part that cover the retina at a specific emplacement
hebb cell assembly
cells that code difference features and the simulatenous firing represent a particular oject = group coding
quiroga jenifer aniston
respond to specific geature combination (little group of neurons)
sparse coding (connor)
respond to only one stimulus
learned or innate
occipito-parietal stream
spatial processing
superior longitudinal fasciculus
links with dorsal limbic and frontal
many imputs ; may be POLYSENSORY
mainly contralateral and peripheral visual fields (central too )
occipito-temporal stream
object information processing
inferior longitudinal fasciculus
subsequent links with amygdala and frontal area
TEO lesion = loss of pettern-discrimination
central representation
V1 to V2 to V3V4 to TEO and TE
macrosmetic animals
strong sense of smell
left hippocampal lesion
verbal memory system
right hippocampal
spatial memory impairement
test of hebb
digit span +1 (recurrin/non-recurring)
proved left is more verbal impairement
delayed nonmatching sample
recognition memory; have to choose novel objects
entorhinal cortex
critical memory structure (code the familiarity). send info to hippocampus
also critical
code name (LH) and location (RH)
add emotional
piriform cortex
primary olfactory cortex
limbic lbe
cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus
older in structure
very interconnected
declarative memory
depend on the neocortex ; send info to entorhinal cortex and then to hippocampus
NEO-STRIATAL STRUCTURES (cortico-hippocampal)
not really memory, more of an HABIT ; implicit
motor tasks
can be reinforced/extinctinced
AIT TO CAUDATE NUCLEUS (tail) DIRECTLY (and putamen) ; basal gnglia = cortico-striatal network = TEMPORAL STEM
then send to GP, thalamus and back to cortex
strong connection to hypothalamus via
STRIA TERMINALIS (around CN) ; branch to septum also
from entorhinal to this =
neophobia (center of fear)
V1 feeback connections ; sensitize primary visual areas
extension of hippocampal system (connection to neocortex; permanent storage probablu)
PRE-commisural = septal region
POST-commisural = mamallary bodies
-send info to thalamus
DAMAGE = H+ like
korsakoff syndrome
destroy mamallary bodies = memory impariement
reward system
dissociation possible of pleasure and value of reinforcement (can reinforce without the amygdala)
reward value
basal ganglia = nucleus accumpus ; where the addiction takes place ; not MEMORIES but more the biological driving that is learned toward stg "useful" (not socially but physiologically)
associative agnosia
fusiform and inferior temporal gyrus (kinda anterior)
perception not impaired
cannot recognize
bilateral but can be juste right
more TE
apperceptie agnosia
bilateral more posterior (v4/v5)
perceptual defect
cannot imitate/recognize
more TEO
can recognize but not name the object (can identify non-verbally)
semantic agnosia
central part of temporal lobe
cannot categorize perceptions but can identify things individually
face agnosia
1-unique non-face stimuli : unique
2-non-unique non-face : category-related
recognize par of the stimuy as independent fragment
may have some unconcious recognition
color agnosia
1- anomia (near wernickes)
2- achromatopsia (pure case)
3- loss of ability t relate color to the correct objects; conceptual problem in color matching (general semantic regions)
lingual gyrus
contain parts of v2 and v3
impairement in tactile recognition of objects
pariteal cortex
general concept of space for all sensory modalities
allocentric proessing
visual information of reations btw objects far away
inferior parietal lobule in monkeys
Egocentric processing
objects close to own reach
frontal lesions
IQ and personality normal;
loss of capacity to PLAN and organise (working memory)
higher-control executive functions
- monitoring of own actions is impaired
- cannot adapt and let of of previous way of acting (cannot adapt)
-induce DISORGANIZED behavior
area 46 (+9/46) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
monitoring of own actions in prefrontal cortex
"active STM". interact with all cortex to "think"
cortex visual processing
interpret and maintain the object in the mind
primary : slits/spots
tecture: pattern
elaborate : complex texture
posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
area 8/little 6
-problem with conditional associative learning tasks ; cannot make SELECTIONS (competition btw alternative responses)
orbital frontal area
strong connection with amygdala and hypothalamus
brain capacity to TURN OFF PAIN, FEAR, ECT.
regulate emotional/motivational states
sensory relay station (primary) for ll except olfaction
lateral geniculate body
lateral = upper visual field (loop in temporal lobe)
medial = lower visual field (parietal)
intraparietal sulcus
realted to ACALCULIA
biological drives
alexia without agraphia
damage to occipital and post-callosal fibers
V4, V5
v4 code color
v5 code movement
ltm impairment
bilateral medial temporal lobe damage
H+A+ (entorhinal)
Visual agnosia
damage to left occipital lobe and nearby callosal fibers
-bilateral cortical-subcortical occipital lobe lesion (disconnected visual area from speech and limbic system)
-anterotemporal higher-order cortices and limbic system structures
-parietal/temporal/visual association cortices
left hemisphere
smart search strategies
false memory (need to explain everything)
problem solving (cognitive activities)
right hemisphere
cannot speak
non-verbal communication
abstract things (that dont have a name)
spatial constructional
true memory
radial fibers
radiating blundles ; axons of pyramidal, fusiform and stellate cells) ; association or projection fiber
tangantial fibers
run horizontal to cortical surface : band of baillarger
vertical radial arragenemtn
supergranular : 2-3
infragranular : 5-6
layer III
lease cortex as association and commisurral fibers
Layer V, VI
leave as projection fibers
heterotypical cortex
cortex 1,5 (konio and agranular)
six layers easily distinguised
maj. of cortex
pure word deagness
loss of connection of wernickes to auditory pathways
doesnt comprehend spoken langage but everything else is ok
speech apraxia
precentral gyrus of insula
cannot coordinate speech movements
often accompanied by oral apraxia
bilateral speech reprensentation
R = serial repetition
L = naming
arcuate fasciculus
auditory-motor pathway
sympathetic dyspraxia
broca's aphasia and right hemiplegia
neural traces
retention of visual information ; imply memory ; old central representation of previous stimuli (refined with new representations added)
superior ocipital/parietal lesions
balint syndrome
unability to recognize identity from movements (visuomotor signs)
-likely undetected
posterior IT
small RF = primary cells
anterior IT (2/3)
large RF, elaborate cells ; optimal stimuli is patterns of particular shape
selectivity of coding develop abruptly from this part
intermediate method of coding
visual invariance
phenomena in visual coding where an object must be recognizable from any angle of view .
invariant: achieved by visual cortex calculations
dependent: by learned temporal association
neurons each resposive to some dicrete visual feature
HM case
condition mainly the same
slight improvment
no IQ loss or perceptual loss
no LTM ; cannot remember if delay/distraction
slight anterograde amnesia
STM is ok
intelligence came up cause less mino attack
not absolute loss (incompleteness of lesion)
procedural learning possible with intensive practice
lives from moment to moment
some retention of constant feature of environment
medial temporal lobe damage
riral encephalitis
posterior cerebral artery occlusion
H+A+/PRPH/H++/it-ento disconnection= severe
other less (because entorhinal is ok)
H+/mamallary is same
medial temporal lobe
hippocampal formation
adjacent cortical area (ento,perirhinal, parahippocampal)
just needed to consolidate STM; after it leaves for the cortex for permanent storage
working memory
remember contextual informaion, to reason and make judgement
- in prefrontal cortex (middle part)
dorsoventral prefrontal cortex
active when doing 2 tasks simultaneously
related to memory (aneurysm can cause amnesia)
frontal cortex connections
inputs: partietal, prestriate and temporal cortex (long term storage of sensory)
outputs: hypothalamus and amygdala allow for emotional regulation