• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The first American psychologist who likened consciousness to a stream that's constantly changing yet always the same.
William James
An organism's awareness of its own self and surroundings.
Consciousness is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon -- consciousness or unconsciousness. It exists along a...
Mental states found during sleep, dreaming, psycoactive drug use, hypnosis, and so on.
Altered state of consciousness (ASC)
Biological changes that occur on a 24-hour cycle (in latin, circa means about, and dies means day).
Circadian rhythms
Disruptions in circadian rhythms cause:
Increased fatigue, decreased concentration, sleep disorders, and other health problems.
___________ demand focused attention and generally interfere with other ongoing activities.
Controlled processes
___________ requires minimal attention and generally does not interfere with other ongoing activites.
Automatic processes
Levels of consciousness: high level of awareness, focused attention required.
Controlled processes - High level of awareness
Levels of consciousness: awareness, but minimal attention required.
Automatic processes - Middle level of awareness
Levels of consciousness: low level of awareness and conscious effort, somewhere between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep.
Daydreaming - Middle level of awareness
Levels of consciousness: a Freudian concept discussed in Ch. 12 consisting of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and memories too painful or anxiety provoking to be admitted during consciousness.
Unconscious mind - Minimal or no awareness
Levels of consciousness: biologically based lowest level of awareness due to head injuries, disease, anesthesia during surgery, or coma
Unconscious - Minimal or no awareness
The "clock" that regulates our circadian rhythms is located in a part of the hypothalamus called the _____________.
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
The SCN also links to the ___________ , which helps regulate sleep and arousal by secreting large quantities of the hormone melatonin at night, promoting relaxation and sleepiness.
Pineal gland
Jet lag tends to be worse when we fly ____________ because our bodies adjust more easily going to bed later.
Disrupted circadian cycles, ___________ poses several hazards: reduced cognitive and motor performance, irritability and other mood alterations, decreased self-esteem, and increased cortisol levels (a sign of stress).
Sleep deprivation
An _____________ records brain wave changes by means of small electrodes on the scalp.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
The stages of sleep, defined by telltale changes in _____________, are indicated by the green stepped lines.
Brain waves
Stages of sleep.
Presleep, paradoxial sleep, total sleep
During paradoxial sleep, ___________ occur under your closed eyelids.
Because REM is so different from other periods of sleep, Stages 1-4 are known as _____________.
Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep
Our biological need for sleep changes throughout our ____________.
Scientists believe that ______ sleep is important for learning and consolidating new memories.
When people are deprived of _________, they spend more time in NREM sleep during their first uninterrupted night of sleep.
Total sleep
As a part of circadian rhythms, sleep evolved to conserve energy and to serve as protection from predators - theory.
Evolutionary circadian theory
Sleep serves a recuperative function, allowing organisms to repair or replenish key factors - theory.
Repair/restoration theory
Freud proposed that unacceptable desires, which are normally repressed, rise to the surface of consciousness during dreaming - part of Freud's ______________ .
Psychanalytic view
In contrast to Freud, a biological view called the ______________________ suggests that dreams are a by-product of random stimulation of brain cells during REM sleep.
Activation-synthesis hypothesis
____________ and ___________ proposed that specific neurons in the brain stem fire spontaneously during REM sleep and that the cortex struggles to synthesize or make sense our of this random stimulation by manufacturing dreams.
Alan Hobson and Robert McCarley
A view that dreams are simply a type of information processing. That is, our dreams help us to periodically sift and sort our everyday experiences and thoughts.
Cognitive view
An estimated __________ of Americans suffer from sleep problems.
Problems in the amount, timing, and quality of sleep, including insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy.
Another serious dyssomnia, characterized by sudden and irresistible onset of sleep during normal waking hours.
_____________ and his colleagues at Stanford's Sleep Disorders Center have bred a group of narcoleptic dogs, which has increased our understanding of the genetics of this disorder. Research on these specially bred dogs ahas found degenerated neurons in certain areas of the brain.
William Dement
Perhaps the most serious dyssomnia is _____________. People with this may fail to breathe for a minute or longer and then wake up gasping for breath. When they do breathe during their sleep, they often snore.
Sleep apnea
Abnormal disturbances occurring during sleep, including nightmares, night terrors, sleep-walking, and sleep talking.
Sleepwalking, which tends to accompany night terrors, usually occurs during ______________.
NREM sleep
Sleep talking can occur during any stage of sleep, but appears to arise most commonly during ____________.
NREM sleep
Nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and sleep talking are all most common among ____________.
Young children
Chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception.
Psychoactive drug
Psychoactive drugs enhancing a particular neurotransmitter's effect.
An agonistic drug
Psychoactive drugs inhibiting a particular neurotransmitter's effect.
An antagonistic drug
The term __________ generally refers to drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to oneself or others. The drug consumption is also typically compulsive, frequent, and intense.
Drug abuse
A broad term referring to a condition in which a person feels compelled to use a specific drug. People now use the term to describe almost any type of compulsive activity, from working to surfing the Internet.
Steps in which agonistic drugs produce their psychoactive effect.
1.) Agonistic drugs increase neuron's ability to synthesize more transmitter molecules, store them more securely, or release them.
2.) Agonistic drugs and some neurotransmitters have similar shapes. Drug binds with the receptor sites and mimics the neurotransmitter's message.
3.) Agonistic drugs block the deactivation of excess neurotransmitters by preventing reuptake or degradation. This blockage allows excess neurotransmitter molecules to remain in the synapse and thereby prolong activation of the receptor site.
Steps in which antagonistic drugs produce their psychoactive effect.
1.) Antagonistic drugs decrease neuron's ability to synthesize, store, and release neurotransmitters.
2.) Antagonistic drugs bind with the receptor sites. However, the molecular shape of the drug is dissimilar enough to the neurotransmitter that its message is blocked.
Categories of Depressants (Sedatives).
Alcohol, barbiturates, anti-anxiety drugs (Valium), Rohypnol (roofies), Ketamine (special K), CoHb
Desired effects of Depressants (Sedatives).
Tension reduction, euphoria, disinhibition, drowsiness, muscle relaxation
Undesirable effects of Depressants (Sedatives).
Anxiety, nausea, disorientation, impaired reflexes and motor functioning, amnesia, loss of consciousness, shallow respiration, convulsions, coma, and death
Categories of Stimulants.
Cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine (crystal meth), MDMA (Ecstasy)


Desired effects of Stimulants.
Exhilaration, euphoria, high physical and mental energy, reduced appetite, perceptions of power, sociability

Increased alertness

Relaxation, increased alertness, sociability
Undesirable effects of Stimulants.
Irritability, anxiety, sleeplessness, paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, elevated blood pressure, and body temperature, convulsions, death

Insomnia, restlessness, increased pulse rate, mild delirium, ringing in the ears, rapid heartbeat

Irritability, raised blood pressure, stomach pains, vomiting, dizziness, cancer, heart disease, emphysema
Categories of Opiates (Narcotics).
Morphine, heroin, codeine
Desired effects of Opiates.
Euphoria, "rush" of pleasure, pain relief, prevention of withdrawal discomfort
Undesirable effects of Opiates
Nausea, vomiting, constipation, painful withdrawal, shallow respiration, convulsions, coma, death
Categories of Hallucinogens (Psychedelics).
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

Desired effects of Hallucinogens (Psychedelics).
Heightened aesthetic responses, euphoria, mild delusions, hallucinations, distorted perceptions and sensations

Relaxation, mild euphoria, increase appetite
Undesirable effects of Hallucinogens (Psychedelics).
Panic, nausea, longer and more extreme delusions, hallucinations, perceptual distortions ("bad trips"), psychosis.

Perceptual and sensory distortions, hallucinations, fatigue, lack of motivation, paranoia, possible psychosis
The mental desire or craving to achieve a drug's effects.
Psychological dependence
Changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimum daily functioning. Appears most clearing when the drug is withheld and the user undergoes painful withdrawal reactions, including physical pain and intense cravings.
Physical dependence
After repeated use of a drug, many of the body's physiological processes adjust to high and higher levels of the drug, producing a decreased sensitivity called ______________.
Tolerance leads many users to escalate their drug use and to experiment with other drugs in an attempt to re-create the original pleasurable altered states. Sometimes, using one drug increases tolerance for another. This is called ___________.
Psychologists divide psychoactive drugs into four categories.
1.) Depressants
2.) Stimulants
3.) Opiates
4.) Hallucionogens
______________ (sometimes called "downers") act on the central nervous system to suppress or slow bodily processes and to reduce overall responsiveness. Because tolerance and dependence are rapidly acquired, there is strong potential for abuse.
Combining alcohol and ___________, both depressants, is particularly dangerous. Together, they can relax the diaphragm muscles to such a degree that the person literally suffocates.
____________ increase the overall activity and responsiveness of the central nervous system.
____________ derive from the opium poppy, used to medically relieve pain. They mimic the brain's natural endorphins, which numb pain and elevate mood. This creates a dangerous pathway to drug abuse.
Opiates (or narcotics)
Interestingly, when opiates are used medically to relieve intense pain, they are very seldom habit-forming. When taken recreationally, they are strongly _____________.
Drugs that produce sensory or perceptual distortions, including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic hallucinations.
Hallucinogens are commonly referred to as _________________ (from the Greek from "mind manifesting")
________ is a synthetic substance that produces dramatic alterations in sensation and perceptions.
LSD, or acid
How opiates create physical dependence.
1.) Opiates (e.g. heroin) mimics endorphins, which elicits euphoria and pain relief.
2.) These key brain areas (hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens [drugs elevate dopamine levels]) are associated with reward, pleasure, and addiction.
3.) Absence of the drug triggers withdrawal symptions (e.g., intense pain and cravings)
Ecstasy stimulates ___________.
Serotonin: euphoria, empathy, clouded thinking
LSD mimics _____________.
Serotonin: Sensory distortions, hallucinations
GHB & Rohypnol depress __________ and increase __________.
Depresses CNS, increases Dopamine: "Date Rape" drugs - colorless, odorless, tasteless - sedation, muscle relaxation, memory blackouts
Club drugs are:
1.) Ecstasy
2.) LSD
3.) GHB & Rohypnol
__________ is also classified as a hallucinogen even though it has some properties of a depressant (it induces drowsiness and lethargy) and some of a narcotic (it acts as a weak painkiller).
In low doses, marijuana produces:
Mild euphoria
In moderate doses, marijuana produces:
An intensification of sensory experiences and the illusion that time is passing slowly.
In high doses, marijuana produces:
Hallucinations, delusions, and distortions of body image.
The active ingredient in marijuana is _________.
THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, which attaches to receptors that are abundant throughout the brain.
Chronic marijuana use can lead to:
Throat and respiratory disorder, impaired lung functioning and immune response, declines in testosterone levels, reduced sperm count, and disruption of the menstrual cycle and ovulation.
A group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distraction, and produce an alternate state of consciousness.
The highest functions of consciousness occur in the:
Frontal lobe, particularly in the cerebral cortex
Typically, your prefrontal cortex is balancing your:
Working memory, temporal integration, and higher-order thinking, among other tasks.
Scientists theorize, based on brain imaging, that when you focus on a single object, emotion, or word, you _________ the amount of brain cells that must be devoted to these multiple tasks.
Some meditation techniques, such as ______________ and _______________ involved body movements and postures, while in other techniques the meditator remains motionless, chanting or focusing on a single point.
T'ai chi and hatha yoga
Research has verfied that meditation can produce dramatic changes in basic physiological processes, including heart rate, oxygen consumption, sweat gland activity, and brain activity. Meditation has also been somewhat successful in reducing stress and lowering blood pressure. (T/F)
A trance-like state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus.
People can be involuntarily hypnotized or hynotically "brainwashed". (T/F)
Hypnosis can make people behave immorally or take dangerous risks against their will. (T/F)
Hypnotized people can perform acts of superhuman strength. (T/F)
Hypnosis requires a willing, conscious choise to relinquish control of one's consciousness to someone else. The best potential subjects are those who are able to focus attention, are opent to new experiences, and are capable of imaginative involvement or fantasy. (T/F)
Hypnotized people retain awareness and control of their behavior, and they can refuse to comply with the hypnotist's suggestions. (T/F)
Although most participants are not consciously faking hypnosis, some researchers believe the effects result from a blend of conformity, relaxation, obedience, suggestion, and role playing. Other theorists believe that hypnotic effects result from a special altered state of consciousness. A group of "unified" theorists suggests that hypnosis is a combination of both relaxation/role playing and a unique alternate state of consciousness. (T/F)
When nonhypnotized people are simply asked to try their hardest on tests of physcial strength, they generally can do anything that a hypnotized person can do. (T/F)
A number of features characterize the hypnotic state:
1.) Narrowed, highly focused attention (ability to "tune out" competitng sensory stimuli)

2.) Increased use of imagination and hallucinations

3.) A passive and receptive attitude

4.) Decreased responsiveness to pain

5.) Heightened suggestibility, or a willingness to respond to proposed changes in perception ("This onion is an apple")
Hypnosis has found its best use in:
Medical areas, such as dentistry and childbirth, in which patients have a high degree of anxiety, fear, and misinformation. Because tension and anxiety strongly affect pain, any technique that helps the patient relax is medically useful.
Consciousness, an organism's awareness of its own self and surroundings, exists along a continuum, from high awareness to unconsciousness and coma. Sleep is a particular "altered state of consciousness" (ASC). (T/F)
Controlled processes demand focused attention and generally interfere with other ongoing activities. Automatic processes require minimal attention and generally do not interfere with other ongoing activities. (T/F)
Many physiological functions follows _____________________.
24-hour circadian rhythms
Disruptions in circadien rhythms, as well as long-term sleep deprivation, cause increased fatigue, cognitive and mood disruptions, and other health problems. (T/F)
The ________________________ detects and records electrical changes in the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex. People progress through four distinct stages of non-REM (NREM) sleep, with periods of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep occurring at the end of each sleep cycle. Both REM and NREM sleep are important for our biological functioning.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
The _______________ proposes that sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators.
Evolutionary/circadian theory
The _______________ suggests that sleep helps us recuperate from the day's events.
Repair/restoration theory
Three major theories for why we dream are:
Freud's psychoanalytic view, the activation-synthesis hypothesis, and the information-processing view.
________________ are problems in the amount, timing, and quality of sleep; they include insomnia, sleep apnea, and narcolepsy.
________________ are abnormal disturbances occurring during sleep; they include nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and sleep talking.
________________ influence the nervous system in a variety of ways. Alcohol affects neutral membranes throughout the entire nervous system. Most ______________ act in a more specific way, by either enhancing a particular neutransmitter's effect (an agonistic drug action) or inhibiting it (an antagonistic drug action).
Psychoactive drugs
Drugs can interfere with neurotransmission at any of four stages:
Production or synthesis, storage and release, reception, or removal
The term __________________ refers to drug-taking behavior that cause emotional or physical harm to oneself or others.
Drug abuse
_________________ refers to a condition in which a person feel compelled to use a specific drug.
_________________ refers to the mental desire or craving to achieve a drug's effects.
Psychological dependence
_________________ refers to biological changes that make a drug necessary for minimum daily functioning.
Physical dependence
Repeated use of a drug can produce decreased ___________ or ____________.
Sensitivity; tolerance
Sometimes, using one drug increases tolerance for another.
Psychologists divide psychoactive drugs into four categories:
Depressants (alcohol, barbituates, Rohypnol, and Ketamine)

Stimulants (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and Ecstasy)

Opiates (morphine, heroin, and codeine)

Hallucinogens (marijuana and LSD)
Almost all psychoactive drugs may cause serious health problems and, in some cases, even death. (T/F)
The term ________________ refers to techniques designed to refocus attention, block out distraction, and produce an alternate state of consciousness.
Some followers believe that meditation offers a more enlightened form of consciousness, and researchers have verified that it can produce dramatic changes in basic physiological processes. (T/F)
Consciousness is defined in this text as:
An organism's awareness of its own self and surroundings.
Mental activities that require focused attention are called:
Controlled processes
Automatic processes require ____________ attention.
Circadian rhythms are:
Biological changes that occur on a 24-hour cycle
Identify the main areas of the brain involved in the operation of circadian rhythms.
Located in book page. 118
The sleep stage marked by irregular breathing, eye movements, high-frequency brain waves, and dreaming is called ________________ sleep.
Which of the following people is clearly experiencing insomnia?

Joan frequently cannot fall asleep the night before a final exam.

Cliff regularly sleeps less than eight hours per night.

Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep.

All of the above.
Dieting, surgery, dental appliances, and tennis balls are all recommended treatments for __________________, a dyssomnia.
Sleep apnea
Psychoactive drugs:
Change conscious awareness, mood, or perception
Depressants include all of the following EXCEPT:

Downers such as sedatives, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs



Valium, Seconal
Altered states of consciousness can be achieved in which of the following ways?

durring sleep and dreaming

via chemical channels

through hypnosis and meditation

all of these options
All of these options
__________________ is a group of techniques designed to refocus attention and produce an alternate state of consciousness.
__________________ is an alternate state of heightened suggestibility characterized by deep relaxation and intense focus.