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141 Cards in this Set

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the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met

biological motivations

food, water, sex

emotional motivations

panic, fear, love, hatred

social motivations

peer pressure, other people's beliefs

cognitive motivations

perceptions, beliefs, expectations

intrinsic motivation

reading because reading is fun, baking because baking is fun

extrinsic motivation

baking to sell goods and make money, reading to write a book report and ace English class

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

needs at lower levels must be met before you can move onto higher levels. physiological (breathing, food, water) -> safety (security, shelter) -> belongingness and love (friendship, family, sex) -> esteem (self-esteem, confidence) -> self-actualization (morality, creativity)

self-determination theory

There are three inborn and universal needs that help people gain a complete sense of self and whole, healthy relationships with others: autonomy (functioning by yourself, sense of control), competence (feel like you know what you're doing), relatedness (friendship, family, sex)

Evolutionary approach to motivation

Motivation is a product of automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses with the ultimate goal of enhancing survival. includes instincts


biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior; hardwired, automatic behavior

optimal-arousal theory of motivation

people have optimal levels of arousal; explains unnecessary behavior such as curiosity or risk-taking


general level of activation

sensation seekers

live at a higher optimal level of arousal

optimal-arousal theory of motivation - impact on performance

Difficult tasks are best done at a low level of arousal, while easy tasks are best done at a high level of arousal

drive-reduction theory of motivation

The motivation to balance biological needs; the need maintain homeostasis, where an imbalance creates a “need” or ”drive"

drive-reduction theory of motivation - need

requirement of some material that is essential for survival of the organism; biological requirement for well-being

drive-reduction theory of motivation - drive

psychological tension and physical arousal that motivates an organism to act in order to fulfil the need and reduce the tension; psychological state that provides motivation


external object or event that motivates behavior and can influence drives

universal emotions

set of emotions that are common to all humans: sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear

self-conscious emotions

emotions that require a sense of self and the ability to reflect on actions: shame, pride, guilt, humiliation, and embarrassment

emotion's influence on attentional processes

shifts attention: negative emotions narrow attention, whereas positive emotions widen attention

emotion's influence on action tendencies

Approach/avoidance: negative emotions facilitate withdrawal or avoidance of objects, whereas positive emotions facilitate explorations or approach of objects

The three elements of emotion

physiology of emotion, expression of emotion, subjective expression of emotion

The three elements of emotion - physiology of emotion

limbic system and amygdala; learning, recognizing, and perceiving emotions, trouble with appraisal-an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus; for example, with fear comes goose bumps, sweating, increased heart rate, and dry mouth

The three elements of emotion - expression of emotion

very culturally based; facial expressions, body language, movement; display roles&facial motor systems

The three elements of emotion - subjective expression of emotion

labeling, top-down processing

display rules

learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings including intensification and masking. sincere emotions are symmetrical, last for .5-5 seconds, and appear and disappear smoothly

pyramidal facial motor system

voluntary or fake smiles

extrapyramidal facial motor systems

involuntary or real smiles

james-lange theory of emotion

physiological responses cause emotion

facial feedback hypothesis

we experience emotions once we recognize the physical changes taking place

cannon-bard theory of emotion

emotion and physiology are simultaneous; the thalamus receives sensory information which it sends to the cerebral cortex (emotion becomes conscious) and peripheral nervous system (physiological responses) at the same time

cognitive arousal (two-factor) theory

emotions are influenced by how we interpret the cause of an event or the arousal; emotion comes from identifying causes of an event

psychodynamic perspective of personality

Focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality


pleasure principle, eros and thanatos, “I want it now”, libido


morality principle, rules, conscience, societal values, develops as you learn rules such as what your parents expect from you


reality principle, “maybe I can find a compromise”, mediates the demands of id, superego, and reality

psychological defense mechanisms

ways of dealing with anxiety though unconsciously distorting one’s perception of reality, strategies to protect the mind against anxiety and guilt


pushing threatening or conflicting events or situations out of conscious memory; keep impulses unconscious


making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior; explain/justify behavior


placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belong to them and not to oneself; attribute impulses to others

reaction formation

forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one’s threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts; change unacceptable impulses to the opposite


expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target; “tacking it onto someone else”


turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior; change unacceptable impulse to an accepted one

psychosexual stage theory

Freudian stages of personality development; at each stage, a different erogenous (pleasure-producing) zone becomes important

psychosexual stage theory - Oral Stage, 0 to 18 months

mouth, sucking, biting, chewing -> dependency, smoking, sarcasm

psychosexual stage theory - Anal Stage, 18 to 36 months

anus, bowel, bladder, potty training -> orderliness, cleanliness, OCD behavior

psychosexual stage theory - Phallic Stage, 3 to 6 years

own or parent’s genitals -> attraction to people who resemble their opposite sex parent

psychosexual stage theory - Latent Stage, 6 to puberty

sexuality dormant, “boys are icky"

psychosexual stage theory - Genital Stage, puberty on

genitals, sex acts -> immature sexuality, self- or other-focused


conflicts that are not fully resolved can result in “getting stuck” to some degree in a stage of development

Behaviorist Perspective of personality

focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior and includes aspects of social cognitive theory in that interactions with others and personal thought processes also influence learning and personality

Person situation controversy

whether behavior is due to personality or situational factors

Reciprocal determinism

three factors influence one another in determining the patterns of behavior that make up personality: environment, behavior itself, and personal or cognitive factors. Influenced by self-efficacy


learned expectations about success

Humanistic Perspective of personality

focused on the role of each person’s conscious life experiences and choices in personality development

Self-actualizing tendency

humans are always striving to fulfil their innate capacities and capabilities and to become everything that their genetic potential will allow them to become


figuring this out is a tool to self-actualization: real self and ideal self

real self

who you are now

ideal self

who you want to be

Unconditional positive regard

acceptance and support no matter what

Fully functioning person

they are in the process of self-actualizing, actively exploring potentials and abilities, experiencing a match between real and ideal self, and have unconditional positive regard

Trait perspective of personality

unlike the other perspectives, trait theorists are more concerned about the end result—the characteristics themselves; some trait theories assume that traits are biologically determined, while others do not; attempt to describe personality in terms of a person’s traits

Source trait

a basic trait a person has that leads to the many surface traits they show. Ex: extraversion

Surface trait

what traits are shown on the outside, or come from the source trait. Ex: outgoing, talkative, open

central traits

organize and control behavior in many different situations. Ex: reliable, hard-working, lazy, deceptive

secondary traits

control far less behavior, situation specific. Ex: scared of revolving doors, so you won’t go through revolving doors

five factor or big five model

Openness to experience - how interested you are in new experiences: artistic, curious, insightful, wide interests, intellectual

conscientiousness - ethical, organized, reliable, thorough, efficient, productive

extraversion - active, assertive, outgoing, talkative, gesturally expressive

agreeableness - appreciative, forgiving, generous, trusting, noncritical, warm

neuroticism - anxious, self-pitying, touchy, vulnerable, impulsive, emotionally unstable

Behavioral assessment

inferring personality from behavior; includes direct observation, rating scales (subjective), frequency counts; used by behaviorists


open ended or structured, life outcomes; used by psychodynamic or humanistic

personality inventories

a self-reporting questionnaire that has a standard list of questions and only requires certain specific answers, such as yes/no/can’t decide or strongly agree-strongly disagree; asks direct questions about a person, quantitatively scored, objective, unbiased, based on facts, clearly stated items; advantages of efficiency and standardization, disadvantages of subject top deliberate distortion; ex: MMPI or NEO-PI-R

projective tests

personality assessment in which the participant is presented with a vague stimulus or situation and asked to interpret it or tell a story about what they see; unstructured stimuli create response freedom, avoid lying, draw a person test, thematic apperception-need for scales, ink blot test, used by psychodynamics; advantages of correct answer not being obvious, designed to tap into unconscious, flexible; disadvantages of low reliability and validity, no set way to interpret answers


1. Infrequency: how rare is the behavior? Just because it’s rare doesn’t mean it’s bad, and vice versa

2. Norm violation – violates cultural values, social deviation

3. Personal suffering – does it hurt or cause distress to your or someone else. Not everything that causes stress is a disorder and vice versa

Biopsychosocial Model

Mental disorders caused by an interaction of biological (physical illness, disruption of bodily processes, genetic influences), psychological (wants, needs, emotions, unconscious conflicts, early relationships), and sociocultural factors (gender, age, race, marital status, cultural values, socioeconomic status

Diathesis-Stress Model

includes risk factors (biological, psychological, sociocultural) and diathesis (predisposition for a psychological disorder. Needs stress to trigger the disorder. Precursors create vulnerability and stress causes disorder

Categories of Disorders in the DSMV

anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, trauma, depressive, bipolar, dissociative, schizophrenia, personality disorders

Specific phobias

fear of a specific stimuli. Arachnophobia – fear of spiders

social phobia/social anxiety disorder

fear of being criticized or doing something embarrassing. Stage fright, fear of using the restroom in public


fear of being away from a safe place. Afraid if something bad happens they won’t be able to escape. Leads to shut-ins

generalized anxiety disorder

long-lasting, unspecific anxiety, no object or source of anxiety, irritability, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, more common in women later in life

Obsessive compulsive disorder

persistent thoughts, repetitive, ritualistic behaviors, “superstition on steroids”

Obsessions – constant, persistent, upsetting, unwanted thoughts that cause marked anxiety or distress. Worries

Compulsions – ritualistic, repetitive behavior that the person feels will reduce anxiety

Dissociative amnesia

sudden memory loss and no new identity. Can occur with or without fugue (flight/running away)

Dissociative identity disorder

reports having more than one identity. “multiple personality disorder” people who show this tend to have childhood trauma

Major depressive disorder

includes depressed mood, diminished interest in most activities, appetite disturbances, sleep disturbances, feeling of restlessness, fatigue, loss of energy, feeling worthlessness or excessive guilt, suicide attempts

Bipolar disorder

alternation between two poles of emotional extremes. Manic-positive mood and depressive-negative mood. Can lead to increased creativity


extremely disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior can’t distinguish between reality and fantasy, disorganized speech, can be inherited, stress-caused

Schizotypal personality disorder

positive symptoms of schizophrenia: socially detached, odd thoughts and behaviors

Paranoid personality disorder

suspicious, distrustful of others, people assumed to be hostile, everyone is out to get you

Schizoid personality disorder

negative symptoms of schizophrenia: socially detached, restricted emotion

Histrionic personality disorder

excessively emotional, must be the center of attention, emotionally shallow

Narcissistic personality disorder

exaggerates ones own importance, arrogant, lacks empathy, “deserves” to be the center of attention

Borderline personality disorder

intense, unstable emotions and relationships, impulsive, suicidal gestures, and angry outbursts

Antisocial personality disorder

lack of remorse, superficial charm, violation of other people’s rights, “sociopaths”

Dependent personality disorder

excessive need to be taken care of, submissive, helpless

Obsessive compulsive personality disorder

preoccupation with order, control or cleanliness, more broad that OCD

Avoidant personality disorder

oversensitive to criticism, feelings of inadequacy, inhibition in social situations


assumes people are driven by sexual and aggressive instinct, people have unconscious conflict between id, ego, and superego. Explore childhood events to help understand psychological disorder. therapist is a neutral expert who sits behind the patient. Use hypnosis, dream analysis, free association, Freudian slips, transference

Free association

given a word and asked the first thing that comes to mind

Dream analysis

symbols in dreams


reenact wishes and conflicts with therapist

Person-centered therapy

humanistic approach. Growth is facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from therapists; therapists show unconditional positive regard for the client in a nondirective setting

Behavioral therapy

assumes peoples actions are based on learning, conditioning, and past experiences. Therapist’s role is a teacher or trainer. They focus on changing maladaptive behaviors into more constructive ones

token economies

earning stars in class to get prize

Systematic desensitization

similar to graded exposure therapy, learn relaxation and how to stay relaxed while going up the fear hierarchy


shoving you into the deep end and throwing a tarantula on your head

Cognitive therapy

focuses on identifying and correcting distorted thinking of the self, others, or the world

Biomedical therapy

psychological disorders are due to physical causes, therapist is medical expert


destroy brain tissue to treat psychiatric disorders. Prefrontal lobotomy cut into frontal lobe and sever connections. Used to treat schizophrenia, ocd, depression in the 40-50s, use declined due to psychoactive drugs and negative consequences

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

the administration of electrical current to the brain. Shock treatment, used as a last resort, controversial history, but evidence that it is effective, why its effective is not known

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

small electrical current that stimulates one part of the brain

monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, very strong side effects. very addictive and easy to abuse, effective but not fast acting. Treatments for mood and anxiety disorders

Tricyclic antidepressants

norepinephrine, serotonin, less side effects than MAOIs. Treatments for mood and anxiety disorders – very addictive and easy to abuse, effective but not fast acting

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

serotonin. Treatments for mood and anxiety disorders – very addictive and easy to abuse, effective but not fast acting


anxiety, minor tranquilizer. Treatments for mood and anxiety disorders – very addictive and easy to abuse, effective but not fast acting


treatment for mania, can be very toxic or useless if not monitored closely and often, don’t know why it works. Treatments for mood and anxiety disorders – very addictive and easy to abuse, effective but not fast acting

Typical antipsychotics

treats positive symptoms. phenothiazines, haloperidol, dopamine (many pathways), side effects of tardive, dyskinesia, tremors, visual impairments, fatigue. for schizophrenia

Atypical antipsychotics

treats positive and some negative symptoms. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, dopamine (specific pathways) and serotonin. for schizophrenia

internal (dispositional) attribution

behavior is due to characteristics of the person; doing something because of who you are; you did x because you are nice/mean/etc

external (situational) attribution

behavior is due to aspects of the situation; due to environment

fundamental attribution error

tendency to explain others behavior in dispositional rather that situational terms. We make dispositional attributions for others, and situational attributions for ourselves

similarity attractiveness

similarity breeds attraction. Common interests, opinions, values, physical attractiveness (tens date tens), age, race, education, socio-economic status

physical attractiveness

high bodily symmetry, body shape, average (not mediocrity), men prefer women with baby features, women prefer men with dominant features

triangular theory of love

only passion-infatuation

only intimacy-linking

only commitment-empty love

passion&intimacy-romantic love

intimacy&commitment-compassionate love

passion&commitment-fatous love

passion,intimacy&commitment-consummate love


rules about acceptable behavior imposed by the cultural context in which one lives

descriptive norm

what people actually do

injunctive norm

what a person should or shouldn’t do


changing ones behavior to more closely match the actions of other


changing ones behavior in response to a direct request from one without authority


changing behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure


when gathered in a group, each individual in the group experiences a lessening of their sense of personal identity and personal responsibility

diffusion of responsibility

a person fails to take responsibility for their action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility

social facilitation

presence of others improves your performance

social loafing

presence of others causes you to relax your standards and slack off

foot in the door technique

initial small requests followed by gradually larger requests. “if you get your foot in the door, it’s easier to pry it all the way open”. Works because we want to be consistent

door in the face technique

asking for a large favor first, then retreating to a smaller favor. Works off compromise and negotiation

milgrams study

shock experiment. Ordinary men shock innocents because of official-looking experimenter’s order. Happened because of formational and normative influences, responsibility and self-justification (diffusion of responsibility), procedural details (gradual increase)

locus of control

the tendency for people to assume they wither have control or don’t have control over the events and consequences of their lives


symptoms of anxiety, dissociative symptoms including emotional numbness or dissociative amnesia, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments of flashback lasting for over a month

becks cognitive therapy

focuses on the distortion of thinking. Helps client realize their inaccurate or illogical beliefs. Focuses on the present and assumes people interact with the world with more than simple, automatic reactions to external stimuli. Help clients relieve symptoms, resolve problems, develop strategies that can be used to cope with future problems, change the way they think from irrational or self-defeating thoughts to more rational, self-helping, positive thoughts

rational emotive behavior therapy

clients are taught a new way to challenge their own irrational beliefs with more rational, helpful statements. take client away from "all or nothing" statements, helping them realize life can be good without being perfect