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53 Cards in this Set

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InformedConsent

provides participants with as full as possible a description of the procedures they will be asked to take part in before they decide to participate

Three things for informed consent

–Overviewof tasks required in study


–Abilityto leave w/out losing credit or money


–Confidentiality

Debriefing

provides participants with a fullexplanation of the study after thestudy is over.

4 Requirements for Debriefing

–Explanation of hypothesis


–Removal of deception


–Use of participants as “consultants”


–“Scouting” goal – leave better than arrived

IRB (Institutional Review Board)

a board of university and community members whoevaluate all research at the university and must approve it as ethicallyacceptable beforeit can be conducted.

3 Things IRB looks at

–Importanceof research vs. Potential harm to participants


–Willtemporary harm be alleviated by end of study?


–Wouldyou let friend, sister, … participate?

Learning

- relatively permanent changein behaviorthat results from experience.

•Two major types of learning both result from learning associations

–Classicalconditioning –learn to associate 2 stimuli in the environment (Pavlov, Watson)


–Operantconditioning –learn to associate behavior with consequences (Thorndike, Skinner)

Processesin Classical Conditioning (2)

Acquisition –learning a new response. Requires: timeassociation, CS before UCS, and certain number of pairings.


Generalization –responding to a new, but similar stimuli, in the same way. (Little Albert and the white rat)


Discrimination –respond to certain stimulus but NOT other (similar) stimuli


Extinction –gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response


SpontaneousRecovery –when the CR comes back after apparent extinction

2 Types of Operant Conditioning

–Reinforcement: increases an organism’s tendency to make a response


–Punishment: decreases an organism’s tendency to make a response

Processes in Operant Conditioning (3)

1.Shaping –reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavioruntil desired behavior occurs


2.Extinction –desired behavior stops due to lack of consequence3.SpontaneousRecovery –behavior returns (usually temporarily) despite lack of consequence

How to Make Effective Punishment

1.Severeenough and proportional to offense2.Followthe behavior immediately


3.Analternate response is provided


4.Isconsistent

Superstition

abehavior which is repeated because you THINK it produces some desired behavior(in reality there is no association between behavior and consequence)

Observational Learning

People andanimals can learn by just observing others’ behavior and then imitating them(direct reinforcement or punishment is not required)•

Prenatal Period (4)

Conception –fertilization creates a zygote –one celled organism (sperm & egg)


GerminalStage (first 2 weeks)


EmbryonicStage (2 weeks – 2 months)


FetalStage (2 months – birth)–LBW(low birth weight) concerns

Newborn Reflexes (6)


Rootingreflex


Blinking


PalmarGrasp


Stepping


Sucking


Startle(Moro) reflex

Newborn Vision (3)

Prefer8-12 inches


Preferhuman face


By 3months, recognize mom’s face

Newborn Hearing (3)

Canlocalize sounds


Arestartled (Moro reflex) or soothed


Recognizemom’s voice (not Dad though)

Development of Attachment (4)

Contactcomfort (Harlow monkey studies)


Familiarity


Responsiveparenting


Temperament

Attachment Patterns

•Secure(60% of US toddlers) Securebase for exploration–Easilysoothed during reunion•Avoidant(20%)•Ambivalent(15%)


•Disorganized/Disoriented(<5%)


•Determinedby Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

Jean Piaget's Theory

Schemas –mental “models” for storing our experiences.


Assimilation – wetry to fit new experiences into existing schemas


Accommodation – weadapt our schemas to fit new information

Piaget’s Stage Theory

Sensorimotor(0-2 years)


Proportional (2-7years)


ConcreteOperational (7-11 years)FormalOperational (12+ years)

Sensorimotor Stage (2)

•Cognitivetasks are sensory and motor in nature•Appearanceof symbolic thought – canuse mental symbols to represent objects


–Objectpermanence –understanding that objects continue to exist when they are not visible

Preoperational Stage (2)

•Developmentof language


•Piagetfocused on child’s limitations here


–Egocentrism –child sees world only from his/her perspectiveLack conservation


–don’t understand that properties such as mass, volume and number remain thesame despite changes

Concrete Stage

•ConcreteOperational Stage (7-11 years)


–Childrenachieve conservation on concrete objects.

Formal Stage

•FormalOperational Stage (12+ years)


–Reasoningexpands to the abstract.

Nature of Gender

•Sex(biological)- based on receiving an XX or XY chromosome pair


•Gender(social/cultural)- socially definedsex roles

Kohlberg’s Cognitive Development Theory (2)

•GenderIdentity (age2-3) – recognizing that you (and others) are male or female.


•GenderConstancy (age6 +) – understanding that your sex will not change with age.

Observational Learning

–we observe and imitate other’s sex-typed behaviors.


–Majorsources of such learning:•People– parents, friends, teachers, …


Media– TV, books, movies, …–Reinforcementand punishment can play a role as well

Building Blocks of Language

Phoneme– basic unit of speech•“p”in petunia or “ng” insting


Syntax– grammatical rules for ordering words into sentences

Stages of Language Development

Perceptionof sounds


Babbling


One-wordStage–Underextension –applying a word too narrowly–Overextension –applying a word too broadly


Two-wordStage–Overregularization –rules of language applied too broadly

Theories of Language Development

•BehavioristPerspective (Skinner) –Languageis learned due to adult reinforcement of children’s verbalizations


•NativistPerspective (Chomsky)–Languageis uniquely human–Weare biologically predisposed to learn language


Proposeda Language Acquisition Device (LAD)–Mustbe triggered by verbal input

Possible Effects of Older Adulthood (2)


–Crystallizedintelligence –one’s accumulated knowledge – increases with age


–Fluidintelligence –reasoning speedily and abstractly – decreases with age

6 Steps of a Research Project

1.Ask aquestion


2.Developahypothesis


3.Selecta method and design the study


4.Collectthe data


5.Analyzedata and draw conclusions


6.Reportfindings

Experimental Design

systematicallyvarying a specific factor (variable) to see if it has an effect on the socialbehavior of interest.

2 Types of Experimental Variables

Experimental variable- avariable systematically varied by the researcher.




Subjectvariable/Quasi-experimental variable - a variable to which a researchercannot randomly assign subjects to the various levels

Dependant Variable

–The outcome variable. What is measured in an experiment.

Operational Definition

•specifiesprecisely how a variable is measured or manipulated by theresearcher.

2 Requirements for True Experiment

–Experimentalvariable(s)- the experimenter actually manipulates all of the independent variable.


–Randomassignment- each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the levels ofthe independent variable.

Criteria for Causality (3)

1.Thereis a relationship between the variables2.Thecausal variable precedes the affected variable


3.Thereis no possibility of a 3rd variable affecting the relationshipbetween the first two variables.

Internal Validity

•theextent to which causal conclusions about the effect of the IV can besubstantiated. Did IV à DV?

External Validity

•theextent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other populationsand settings.

2 Ways of Avoiding Experimenter Bias

•Blindto condition –E not knowing which level of the IV participant is being exposed to


•Blindto hypothesis –E not knowing the prediction for each level of the IV

Early Schools of Psychology (2)

Wilhelm Wundt- The Science of Psycology




Edward Titchener- Structuralism




William James, Darwin- Functionalism

Functionalism

functionalismfocuses on how behaviors function toallow people and animals adapt to their environment

Structuralism

complexconscious experiences could be broken down into elemental parts or structures.

The Science of Psycology

experimentalmethods should be used to study mental processes

Psychoanalysis (Freud)

The Unconscious isthe part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness


Unconsciousconflicts determine behavior andpersonality

Sigmund Freud Ideas

–Humannature driven by instinct and unconscious drives (sex & aggression primary)Believed in power of the unconscious


–Interpretationof dreams


–Freeassociation

Behaviorist Psych

Ourbehavior is a direct response to a stimulus in our environment.

Cognitive Psych

Thescientific study of how perception, thought, memory, and reasoning areprocessed

Humanist Psych

•Importanceof looking at entire person


•Emphasizedfree will


•Strivefor self-actualization (full potential)

Levels of Analysis

•Biological –emphasizing genetics along with brain structure and chemistry


•Individual –traditional research areas like perception, cognition, language &personality


•Sociocultural –how groups and cultures can impact us