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167 Cards in this Set

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an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling; shaped by prior (genes) and anticipated (hopes, dreams) events


a method in which people provide subjective information about their own thoughts, feelings, or behaviors, typically via questionnaire or interview

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

a well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems

Projective tests

tests designed to reveal inner aspects of individual's personalities by analysis of their responses to a standard series of ambiguous stimuli

Rorschach Inkblot test

a projective technique in which respondents' inner thoughts and feelings are believed to be revealed by analysis of their responses to a set of unstructured inkblots

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective technique in which respondents' underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world are believed to be revealed through analysis of the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people


a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way

Big Five

the traits of the five-factors personality model: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

psychodynamic approach

an approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness - motives that can also produce emotional disorders


the part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires and impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive desires


the mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority


the component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands

defensive mechanisms

unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses

psychosexual stages

distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures


the phenomenon in which a person's pleasure -seeking drives become psychologically stuck, or arrested, at a particular psychosexual stage

oral stage

the first psychosexual stage, in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed; in the first year and a half of life

anal stage

the second psychosexual stage, in which experience is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with eh anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training; between ages of 1 and 3

phallic stage

the third psychosexual stage, in which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict; between ages of 3 and 5

Oedipus conflict

a developmental experience in which a child's conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent are usually resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent; between ages of 5 and 13

latency stage

the fourth psychosexual stage, in which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills; between ages of 5 and 13

genital stage

the fifth and final psychosexual stage, the time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner

self-actualizing tendency

the human motive towards realizing their inner potential

existential approach

a school of thought that regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death

social-cognitive approach

an approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them

person-situation controversy

the question of where behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors

personal constructs

dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences

outcome expectancies

a person's assumptions about the likely outcomes of a future behavior

locus of control

the tendency to perceive the control of regards as internal to the self or external in the environment


a person's explicit knowledge of his or her own behaviors, traits, and other personal characteristics


the tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept


the extent to which the individual likes, values, and accepts the self

self-serving bias

refers to people's tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay their responsibility for their failures


a trait that reflects a grandiose view of the self combined with a tendency to seek admiration from or exploit others

social psychology

the study of the causes and consequences of sociality


behavior whose purpose is to harm another

frustration-aggression hypothesis

suggests that animals aggress when their desires are frustrated


behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit


a collection of epople who have something in common that distinguishes them from others


a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on the person's group membership


positive or negative behavior toward another person based on the person's group membership

common knowledge effect

the tendency for group discussions to focus on information that all members share

group polarization

the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone


the tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony


occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values

diffusion of responsibility

the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way

bystander intervention

the act of helping strangers in an emergency situation


behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself

kin selection

the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their realitves

reciprocal altruism

behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future

mere exposure effect

the tendency for liking to increase with frequency of exposure

passionate love

an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction

companionate love

an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being

social exchange

the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits

social influence

the control of one person's behavior by another


customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture

norm of reciprocity

the unwritten rule that people should benefit from those who have benefited them

normative influence

a phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about that is appropriate


the tendency to do what others do simply because others do it


the tendency to do what authorities tell us to do


an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event


an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event

informational influence

a phenomenon that occurs when another person;s behavior provides information about what is true


a phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person

systematic persuasion

the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason

heuristic persuasion

the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion

foot-in-the-door technique

a social influence technique that involves making a small request before making a large request

cognitive dissonane

an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs

social cognition

the process by which people come to understand others


the process by which people draw inferences about people based on their knowledge of the categories to which those people belong

perceptual confirmation

the tendency for people to see what they want to expect

self-fulfilling prophecy

the tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave


an inference about the cause of a person's behavior

correspondence bias

the tendency to make dispositional attributions instead of situational attributions

actor-observer effect

the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behaviors of others

mental disorder

a persistent disturbance of dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment

medical model

abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses, have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicated how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems


refers to the co-occurence of two or more disorders in a single individual

biopsychosocial perspective

explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological, and social factors

diathesis-stress model

suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress

Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC)

a new initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them

anxiety disorder

the class of mental disorders in which anxiety is the prominent features

phobic disorders

disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations

specific phobia

a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with and individual's ability to function

social phobia

a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed

preparedness theory

the idea that people are instinctively predisposed towards certain fears

panic disorder

a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror


a specific phobia involving a fear of public places

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance

obsessive-compulsive disorder

disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning

posttraumatic-stress disorder

a disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind

mood disorders

mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature; take two major forms of depression and bipolar disorder

major depressive disoder

a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbance

seasonal affective disorder

depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern

helplessness theory

individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal, stable, and global

bipolar disorder

a condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)

expressed emotion

a measure of how much hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder


a psychotic (break from reality) disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in though, motivation, and behavior

positive symptoms

thoughts and behaviors not seen in those without the disorder


false perceptual experiences that have a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation


patently false beliefs, often bizarre and grandiose, that are maintained in spite of their irrationality

disorganized speech

a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently among unrelated topics

grossly disorganized behavior

behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances

negative symptoms

deficits or disruptions to normal emotions or behavior

cognitive symptoms

deficits in cognitive abilities, specifically in executive functioning, attention, and working memory

dopamine hypothesis

the idea that schizophrenia involves and excess of dopamine activity

autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

a condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities

attention-deficite/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a persistent pattern of severe problems with inattention and/or hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause significant impairments in functioning

conduct disorder

a condition in which a child or adolescent engages in a pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression against people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious rule violation

personality disorders

enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that deviate from cultural expectations and cause distress or impaired functionality

antisocial personality disorder (APD)

a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood


intentional self-inflicted death

suicide attempt

a self-inflicted injury from which a person had at least some intention of dying

nonsuicidal self-injury

the direct, deliberate destruction of body tissue in the absence of any intent to die

catatonic behavior

a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity


an interaction between a socially sanctioned clinician and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem

eclectic therapy

a form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem

psychodynamic psychotherapies

therapies that explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use the understanding that results to develop insight into their psychological problems


a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material


an event that occurs when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based in unconscious childhood fantasies

interpersonal pyschotherapy

a form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships

person-centered therapy

assumes that all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from therapists. Developed by Psychologist Carl Rogers

gestalt therapy

therapy that has the goal of helping the client become become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings and to "own: or take responsibility for them. Developed by Frederick Perls.

behavior therapy

a type of therapy that assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors. Done through elimination unwanted behaviors, promoting desired behaviors, and reducing unwanted emotional responses

token economy

a form of behavior therapy in which clients are given "tokens" for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards

exposure therapy

an approach to treatment that involves confronting and emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response

cognitive therapy

focuses on helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world

cognitive restructuring

a therapeutic approach that teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs

mindfulness meditation

teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of his or her thoughts, feelings, and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem

cognitive behavioral therapy

a blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies

group therapy

a technique in which multiple participants (who often do not know each other at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere

antipsychotic drugs

medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. include chlorpromazine, thioridazine, and haloperidol


the study of drug effects on psychological states and symptoms

antianxiety medication

drugs that help reduce a person's experience of fear or anxiety. Include neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), diazepam, Lorazepam, alprazolam


a class of drugs that help lift people' moods. Include monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and most commonly serotonin re-uptake inhibitors

electroconvulsive therapy

a treatment that involves inducing a brief siezure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain

transcranial magnetic stimulation

a treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain


a therapy that involves repeated exposure to bright light


the surgical destruction of specific brain areas


an inert substance or procedure that has been applied with the expectation that a healing response will be reproduced

iatrogenic illness

a disorder or symptom that occurs as a result of a medical or psychotherapeutic treatment


specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's wellbeing


the physician and psychological response to internal or external stressors

health psychology

the subfield of psychology concerned with the ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health

chronic stressor

sources of stress that occur continuously or repeatedly

learned helpessness

the belief that one has no control over one's situation based on past experience

fight-or-flight response

an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action

general adaptation syndrome

three-stage physiological stress response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered


caps at the ands of each chromosome that protect the ends of chromosomes and prevent them from sticking to eachother

immune system

a complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances

Type A behavior patterns

tendency towards easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings


a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowering performance and motivation

repressive coping

avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint

rational coping

facing the stressor and working to overcome it


finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat


the practice of intentional contemplation

relaxation therapy

a technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body

relaxation response

a condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heat rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure


the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function

social support

aid gained through interacting with others

psychosomatic illness

an interaction between mind and body that can produce illness

somatic symptom disorders

the set of psychological disorders in which a person with at least one bodily symptom displays significant health-related anxiety, expresses disproportionate concerns about symptoms, and devotes excessive time and energy to symptoms or health concerns

sick role

a socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness


the exercise of voluntary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards

alarm phase

phase of stress when the body rapidly mobilizes its resources to respond to a threat

resistance phase

phase of stress response when the body tries to adapt to the stressor by shutting down unnecessary processes such as digestion, growth, and the sex drive

exhaustion phase

phase of stress response when the body's resistance collapses, creating damage that can make the body more susceptible to infection, aging, organ damage, or death