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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gender stereotypes
the widely shared beliefs about males' adn females' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior
the belief that the male is the norm
a technique that ombines the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variable's efects
involves behavior that is intended to hurt somsone either physically or verbally
Involves yielding to real or imagined social pressure
Social Role Theory
Asserts that minor gender differences are exaggerated by the different social roles that males and females occupy (Alice Eagly)
Social Constructionism
asserts that individuals construct their own reality based on societal ecpectations, conditioning, and self-socialization
Cerebral hemispheres
are the right and left hales of the cerebrum, which is the convoluted outer layer of the brain.
chemical substances released into the blood stream by endocrine glands
is the acquisition of the norms and roles expected of people in a particular society
Gender Roles
are cultural expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each gender.
Gender schemas
are cognigive structures that guide processing of gender-relevant information
Role expectations for males
achievement, agression, autonomy, sexuality, and stoicism
the intense fear and intolerance of homosexuality
Role expectations for Females
the marriage mandate, the motherhood mandate
is discrimination against peope on the basis of their gender
Gender role identity
is a person's identification with the qualities regarded as masculine or feminine
refers to the coexistence of both masculine and feminine personality traits in a single person
The gender-role transcendence perspective
proposes that to be fully human, people need to move beyond gender roles as a way of organizing their perceptions of themselves and others (Sandra Bem)
Instrumental style
focuses on reaching practical goals and finding solutions to problems
Expressive style
is characterized by being able to express tender emotions easily and being sensitive to the feelings of others
Taken as a whole, gender differences in verbal abilities are:
small and favor females
Among the following traits, the largest gender differences are found in:
a) verbal abilities
b) matematical abilities
C) physical agression
d) conformity
Which of the following statements about gender differences is false?
a) males have higher self-esteem than females.
b) males are more physically agressive than females.
c) females are more likely to yield to group pressure.
D) women talk more than men
Of the 3 biologically based explanations for gender differences, which has the strongest support?
4-yr old Rachel seems to pay particular attention to what her mother and older sister do, and she often imitates them. What is taking place?
Observational learning
Parents tend to respond more to ____ behavior, especially in ______.
gender inappropriate; boys.
Whih of the folowing statements about peer socialization is true?
Peer groups appear to influence gender-role socialization in boys more than girls.
Which of the following is not a problem with the male role?
Which of the following is not a problem with the female role?
poor non-verbal communication skills
According to Deborah Tannen, exhibiting knowledge and sill to get and keep the attention of others is ____, where as displaying similarities and matching experiences with others is ____.
Report-talk; rapport-talk
Sandra Bem
Challenged "masculinity" and "feminity". ARgued that traditionally masculine men and feminine women feel complled to adhere to rigid and narrow gender roles. Androgyny, and gender role transcendence.
Alice Eagly
Developed the social role theory (see notecard) People come to associate such role-related behaviors with individuals of a given gender, not with the roles they play. People come to see nurturing as a female trait rather than a characteristic that anyone in a nurturing role would demonstrate
Janet Shibley Hyde
She found no gender differences across all types of verbal tests and within several specific verbal areas. Found out that girls usually start speaking earlier than boys. Thus on the whole, gender differences in verbal ability are small; however, there do some to be a few differences that favor females.
Joseph Pleck
Role expectations for males. He considers antifeminitty to be the central theme that runes through the male gender role
Deborah Tannen
Males and females are socialized different. Males learn the language of status and independence while females learn connection and intimacy. She likens male/female communications to othe "cross cultural" communications- full of opportunities and misunderstandings. (Instrumental and expressive styles see notecard)