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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the definition of a science?

gaining knowledge by being objective and systematic

How is science gained?

By using scientific methods

Name the hard sciences...

Physics, Chemistry and Biology

Name the soft sciences...

Psychology, sociology and ecology

name the 4 definitions for science...

Objectivity, Falsifiability, Paradigm and Replicability

Who created the idea of the 4 humours? and how did he see psychology?

Hippocrates proposed there are individual differences in personality related to body humours

He saw psychology in a scientific way

Who was Wundt? What did he do? Where did he do it? and What did he aim to do?

Wundt set up the first labrotory in an German university and his aim was to make Psychology more systematic and objective

Wundt's idea was furthered by who? what were they? and what were they seen to be?

Watson and Pavlov


seen as objective and scientific in their methods in psychology

What is Objectivity?

When something is completely free of opinion or bias

Why is objectivity difficult for psychology?

Because it is mainly theory led and so everybody has an idea of what to expect

What did Wallach and Wallach say about objectivity?

that perfect objectivity cannot be achieved

BUT we can be more we can be more certain if there is evidence to support it

What 2 things could potentially compromise the validity, and thus the objectivity?

Experimenter bias and demand characteristics

What is Falsifiability?

A study that can be tested and disproven is a science

BUT what theorys by a famous Psychologist are impossible to be falsifiable?

Frueds theory that the mind consists of ego, superego and id- as there is no way of finding out for sure

What is a paradigm?

An approach or viewpoint

What does Kuhn believe about Paradigm?

Kuhn believes that this is essential to a science

Name the 3 different types of a science related to Paradigm

Pre - science, Normal science, and revolutionary science

What is Pre science?

no generally accepted paradigm

what is Normal Science?

Generally accepted paradigm - influences the experiments that are carried out and how the findings are explained

Revolutionary Science

Paradigm shift from old to new

What did Kuhn believe about psychology and its paradigm?

that psychology has failed to develop a paradigm, so is a pre-science

Why is Kuhn true?

As there are several theoretical approaches and not just one that everybody agrees on and it is also unlikely that everyone will agree

When is replicability more likely?

when experiments are carried out in a careful and controlled way eg lab experiments

What are the non-scientific approaches to psychology?

Humanistic approach and social constructionist approaches,

What is an example of a humanistic approach?

Maslow and Rogers - who said that individuals report their conscious experiences and are very subjective

What do Social Constructionist approaches argue?

they argue that there is no objective data and that our 'knowledge' of ourselves and the world is based on social constructions

What did Burr say about Social Constructionist approaches?

That observations made by psychologists are determined by the cultural and historical influences on us.

what do psychologist say about the goals of science being appropriate for psychology?

Some psychologists do no see the value of science for gaining psychological insights

What did Laign argue about 'scientific explainations of Schizophrenia?

He said that important elements of the disorder are missed, such as distress experienced by the patient.

What did he feel about the aim of scientific approach?

That it is to make generalisations about behavior (nomothetic approach)

How did he feel about the treatment and how it could succeed?

He said that the only way the treatment could succeed was if each patient was treated as an individual case ( idiographic approach)

What did what Laign was saying about psychology suggest?

that science may not be suitable for psychology

What are the arguements for psychology being a science? (give 5 examples)

science to explain behaviour

methods are falsifiable

approaches do achieve their predictions

research is replicable

features are very scientific eg physiological psychology

What are the arguements against psychology? (Give 5 examples)

Has no single paradigm

lack of external validity

lack internal validity

subjec to demand characteristics and experimenter bias

Opinion, not fact

What can we conclude about psychology being a science?

Its reductionist, complex phenomenon is reduced

Its deterministic, causal relationships

Human nature is far more complex