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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the criteria for behavior to be considered abnormal?
the four Ds;deviance;distress;dysfunction;dangerousness
the four Ds
criteria for abnormal behavior;deviance;distress;dysfunction;dangerousness
problem with defining abnormal behavior as “deviance”
norms change over time;and differ between cultures
problem with defining ab behav as “distress”
distress is not always disordered; like grief or guilt;and some ab behav doesn’t cause distress
problem with defining ab behav as “Dysfunction”
subjectivity; Susan B Anthony was certainly dysfunctional, in terms of getting thrown in prison and stuff
problem with defining ab behav as “dangerousness”
it’s actually good;but dangerousness is the exception, not the rule;and harming self or others isn’t always a sign of mental illness
Szasz’s main argument against “mental illness”
the problem is social or ethical; it forces you to accept dualism;it allows you to take away another’s freedom or otherwise discriminate against them
A brief history of mental illness
ancient societies attributed evil spirits;greeks and romans had imbalanced humors;middle ages had the supernatural again;renaissance started psychpathology and got to humane treatment;19th century saw modern psychology;20th got to some bio explanations and medicine
mental illness in ancient societies
evil spirits!
mental illness in greece and rome
imbalance of humors
mental illness in middle ages
back to supernatural ********
mental illness in renaissance
advent of idea of psychopathology;start of asylum idea
mental illness in 19th century
modern psychology ideas; mental hospitals where people could be free of stressors
mental illness in 20th century
bio explanations;medicine;deinstitutionalization
three main types of research designs
case study;correlational method;experimental method
pros of case study method
super ideographic;can be only way to study rare phenomenon
cons of case study method
not at all nomothetic;low internal validity;low external validity
internal validiity
the degree to which the study rules out other possible causes
external validity
the degree to which the study results can be generalized to other people and contexts
pros of corelational method
high external validity;easy replication
cons of correlational method
can’t prove causation;lacks internal validity;lacks richness and detail of case study
pros of experimental method
high internal validity
cons of experimental method
trades external validity for high internal validity;can be difficult or unethical
quasi-experimental design
just like experimental method, but you don’t have random assignment to groups;(like when you look at two preexisting populations
the dodo’s verdict
idea that competing psychotheraputic models produce pretty much the same results and are equally effective
models of abnormality
bio;psychodynamic (psychoanalytic);behavioral;cognitive
diathesis-stress model
nature and nuture work together to cause ab psych;you need to have the genetic predisposition;and an environmental stressor
bio model treatment
drugs!;ECT;psychosurgery;beware of side effects
gist of psychodynamic model
you have internal conflicts;possibly due to repression;ab functioning stems from not being able to handle the conflicts;you have defense mechanisms
psychdynamic defense mechanism
psychodynamic treatment
make the unconscious conscious;work through interpretation of transferrence, resistance;dreams;free association
gist of behavioral model
we learned poorly;and can be fixed through learning adaptive behavior to replace problematic behavior
types of learning
classical conditioning;operant conditioning;modeling
difference between clasical and operant
classical is pavlov (associations);operant is skinner (manipulation of consequence of actions)
who is behind psychodynamic model?
who is behind behavioral model?
pavlov and skinner
who is behind cognitive model?
aaron beck
gist of cognitive model
illogical thinking causes misery;a cognitive process defines the feeling one associates with the event; beck called them cognitive distortions
cognitive therapy tools
record chart -- write down situatoin, the emotion, think about automatic feelings that go along with it
humanistic model’s three necessary things
UPR; genuineness;conditions of worth
gist of humanistic model
you place conditions of worth on yourself;leading to conflict between your ideal self and your real self
humanisitic therapy
give UPR;be empathic;use reflectoins;be genuine
Main purposes of clinical assessment
DSM axes
most clinical symptoms;mr and personality disorders;medical conditions;psychosocial stressors;GAF - global assessment of functioning
assessment via clinical interview
often only tool used;may be structured (specific questions) or not, to get a better picture of the person
assessment via observatoins
checking out their appearance, characteristics, mood, affect (and is it appropriate), their thought processes, social skills
projective hypothesis
idea that if you give people ambiguous stuff, they’ll project their feelings upon it;rorschach;thematic apperception;
physiology of anxiety disorders
subject has a “fear-like” response in absence of appropriate trigger;may have nausea, headaches, etc, to go along with increased heartrate and breathing, and so on
Anxiety syndroms
panic disorder;generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Subcategories of phobias
specific phobia (this is the actual name of the category);social phobia
symptoms of PTSD
persistent re-experiencing;avoidance of triggers or social engagement;increased phys arousal
behavioral perspective:;process for anxiety disorders
stage 1 - classical conditioning of stressor and stress;stage 2 - avoidance of situations leads to operant conditioning after avoidance causes lessening of stress
anxiety and neurotransmitters
GABA (the inhibitory one);norep;serotonin
mmpi - describe
500+ self-statements;answer true, false, cannot say;ranked according to 10 scales;was remade in 1989 to be more culturally competent;
somatogenic v. psychogenic
somatogenic: biological disorder;this is szasz’s thing, kinda
Existential model
it’s up to people to give meaning to their lives;which is daunting;leading people to live unauthentic lives