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72 Cards in this Set

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Basal Ganglia and memory

Basal Ganglia and memory

gradual probabilistic learning relies on this

Alz. Disease Treatments

1. High ACH activity thus increases arousal


2. Drugs are not effect when damage is already excessive.

Alz. Disease

1. 50% ppl over 85+


2. 5% ppl 65-74


3. 99% Late onset


4. NO EFFECTIVE DRUG


5. accumulation and clumping of brain proteins

Alz. Disease Proteins

1. Amyloid Beta Protein: produces atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippo campus


2. Tau Protein: part of intracellular support sys of neurons



Accumulation 2 Proteins in Alz. =

1. Plaques: structures formed from damaged axon+dendrites
2. Tangles: structures formed from degeneration of neurons

1. Plaques: structures formed from damaged axon+dendrites


2. Tangles: structures formed from degeneration of neurons

Korsakoffs Syndrome Cause, Mean, and Symptoms

Caused by prolonged Thiamine (Vit. B) deficiency, typically due to chronic alcoholism


Means: brain cannot metabolize gulcose, which mean loss and shrinkage of neurons


Symptoms: confabulation, confusion, memory loss

What causes older ppls working mem to decrease?

Assumed: change in prefrontal cortex

Mass Action

Cortex works better as a whole, and more the more cortex the better

Recent Episodic Memory

have more contextual details than older ones

Hippocampus and Memory

memory for context (sight/sounds/place)


May be coordinator


Critical for declarative memory

Damage to Hippocampus + Spatial Mem. can be tested by...

radial mazes and water mazes

Place responsible for Delayed Response Task


(also involved in learned behavior and decision making)

PreFrontal Cortex



Delayed non-matching-to-sample task

subject sees object and chooses DIFFERENT one later

Delayed matching-to-sample task

subject sees an object and chooses object that MATCHES later

Procedural Memory

Development of motors skills + Habits


Part of Implicit



H.M. could form new...

Procedural Memory

Long-Term Memory

memory that lasts a long time


no capacity


can be stimulated with cue



Short-Term Memory

memory that lasts short-term


fades quickly w/o rehearsal


limited capacity


cannot be stimulated with cue or hint

Explicit Memory

Deliberate recall of info as one recognizes as memory (ex. childhood mem)

Implicit Memory

influence of experience on behavior even if one doesn't recognize it (ex. unconscious mem)

Semantic Memory

Memories of Factual Informaion

Episodic Memory

Memories of a single personal event



Working Memory

temporary storage of information

H.M. had none...

Episodic memories :(



Types of Amnesia

Retrograde and Anterograde

Anterograde Amneisa

Loss of ability to form new memories after brain damage

Retrograde Amneisa

Loss of memories prior to brain damage



H.M.

had both types of amnesia.. Hippocampus was removed

had both types of amnesia.. Hippocampus was removed

Amnesia

Memory loss, Hippocampus

Memory loss, Hippocampus

Common test of working memory

delayed response task

Memory Impacts

Ones ability to picture the future

Working Memory Founders

Baddley and Hitch- alternative to short-term mem.

Baddley and Hitch- alternative to short-term mem.

Emotionally Significant Memories

form quickly due to epi and cortisol enhancing the experience

Research has proven _____ about long and short term memory

1.) not all rehearsed short term memory becomes long term


2.) there is time needed for consolidation of memory

Hebb


(1949)


differentiated between short/long-term memory

Richard Thompson

classical conditioning


states that an engram in the cerebellum not the cortex

Lateral Interpostius Nucleus (LIP)

ID'd as central for general learning


However, brain changes in that area does not prove learning took place

Equipotentality

all parts of cortex connected to complex behavior functions

Lashleys Experiments

showed that learning and memory DO NOT rely on one single cortical area

Lashleys Faulty Assumptions

cerebral cortex in best/only engram place


studying one type of learning is equivalent to any other

Engram

physical representation of what has been learned

Instrumental or Operental Conditioning

individuals response followed by reinforcer or punishment

Punishment

decreases probability of response happening again

Reinforcers

increase probability of response happening again

Classical Condtioning

pairing two stimuli changes the ind. response to one


EX. dogs salivate to bell

Who found Classical Conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov

Unconditioned Stimulus

Response to conditioned stimulus


EX. Salivation

Conditioned Stimulus

Stimuli that shouldn't produce effect, but does


EX. Bell



Parietal Lobe and Memory

associated with piecing information together

Amygdala and Memory

responsible for fear learning

Damage to Anterior Temporal Complex...

Results in loss of semantic memory

Prefrontal Cortex and Memory

involved in learned behavior and decision making


(also responsible for Delayed Response Task)

Hebbian Synapse

-Increases in effectivenessbecause of simultaneous activity in the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons


-May be critical for associative learning

Hebbian Theory

cells that fire together, wire together

cells that fire together, wire together

Aplysia

slug-like invertebrates with large neurons 

slug-like invertebrates with large neurons

Habituation in Aplysia

decrease in response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly, accompanied by no other stimuli change.

WHY Habituation in Aplysia

Change in the synapse between the sensory and motor neurons, sensory neurons fail to excite motor neurons as they did previously

Sensitization in Aplysia

increase in response to a mild stimuli as a result to a previous exposure to more intense stimuli




(Getting burned, youll react even if its only a little too hot)

WHY Sensitization in Aplysia

changes at ID'd synapse include:


-Serotonin released from a neuron blocks K channels in the presynaptic neuron


-Prolonged release of transmitters fromthat neuron results in prolonged sensitization

Specificity

Only synapses onto a call that have been highly active become strengthened

Cooperativity

simultaneous stimulation by 2+ axons produce LTP (Long term potentation) much more strongly than does repeated stimulus by a single neuron

NOTE TO SELF WATCH VIDEO ON LTP and do other flashcards

NOTE TO SELF WATCH VIDEO ON LTP and do other flashcards

Associativity

paring a weak input with a strong input later increases the response to the weak input

LTD (Long Term Depression)

prolonged decrease in response at a synapse that occurs when axons have been less active than others

Compensatory Process

as one synapse strengthens, another weakens

LTP in Verebrates

occurs when 1+ axons bombard dendrite with stimulation


Leaves synapse potentiated for a period of time and neuron is more responsive



LTP depends on...

glutamate and GABA synapses

Two types of glutamate receptors

AMPA and NMDA

Drugs that improve memory

Ritalin and Caffeine

Gene Expression and Memory

Altering gene expression in mice equals slight benefits w/cost to other memory




Altering behavior is better

A) Human Memory
B) Sensory Memory
C) Short-Term/Working Memory
D) Long-Term Memory
E) Explicit Memory
F) Implicit Memory
G) Declarative Memory
H) Procedural Memory
I) Episodic Memory
J) Semantic Memory

A) Human Memory


B) Sensory Memory


C) Short-Term/Working Memory


D) Long-Term Memory


E) Explicit Memory


F) Implicit Memory


G) Declarative Memory


H) Procedural Memory


I) Episodic Memory


J) Semantic Memory



Declarative Memory

memory that you "just know", and an be consciously recalled as facts and knowledge