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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Knowledge
The Mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions
define categorization
the process by which bits of information are placed into categories
why do we categorize information?
categories allow us to quickly glean information about new inputs
describe the “puppy” the first time you see a horse
it’s not that we cannot discern any difference
rather, we have not yet created a new category
Definitional approach to categories
determine membership in category by whether the object meets the definition of the category
doesn’t work well
says we need separate categories for dogs and three-legged dogs
a papisan is defintely a chair, but doesn’t look like our definition at all...
Prototype approach to categories
uses the “typical definition” for the category
which is abstract
allows for deviation without distroying the usefulness of the category
Rosch’s ranking by category
“sparrow” is very birdlike indeed
penguins less so
bats even less so
a chair, way less
high v. low prototypicality
Rosch
a sparrow is more typical and thus better represents the prototypical bird
while a penguin represents it less well
speed of processing depends on prototypicality
Prototypical approach and priming
Rosch
things that are definitely green but farther from the prototype take longer to positively or negatively identify
Exemplar approach to categories
concept is represented by multiple actual examples
(not abstractions)
so you compare the item to stored examples
works great with variables
How do we use the exemplar approach?
similar to prototype, we rank based on family resemblance
but as more cases are atypical, we can account for them
works great with variables
when might we switch between proto and exemplar approaches?
exemps might be better for small categories
protoyp for larger
Specificity and categorizatoin
Global features
basic features
specific features
note that basic features may be the most informative, becuse specifics add little information
Semantic network approach
the big, upside-down tree
branched items share characteristics
cognitive economy
major benefit of a semantic network
similar items share properties, so we needn’t classify each item with all of its own charateristics laid out
semantic network:
spreading activation
activation of the network spreads from node to node
this allows for a priming effect
Lexical Decision Task
read two words quickly, ask if both are words
closely related words showed faster reaction time
perhaps because of spreading activation
Criticism of semantic network model
cannot explain typicality effects
some sentence-verification results show variance based on personal experience, suggesting a more-tangled network
collins and loftus:
revision of semantic network model
allowed for more freedom in network connections
with shorter links for more closely related concepts
no hierarchy: based on personal experience
works better to describe results of lexical decision task
but lacked falsifiability
Connectionist approach
neuron-like units
inputs, then some hidden unit does filtering and directing, then outputs
”parallel distributed processing”
knowledge is the represented in the distributed activity of many units
explains: generalization of learning, graceful degradation (gradual performance loss as parts are damaged, instead of simply breaking the chain)
parallel distributed processing
feature of the the Connectionist Approach
knowledge represented in the distributed activity of many units
Categories and brain anatomy
different areas may be specialized to process different categories
categories are reperesented by distributed activity (including similar patterns for similar features)
Mental Imagery
experiencing sensory impression in the absence of sensory input
provides another way to access info, beyond purely verbal techniques such as “what is the captitol of France?”
why do we recall lists of items better if they’re nouns?
we can mentally image objects better than concepts
conceptual peg hypothesis
conceptual peg hypothesis
we create mental pictures that let us access the memory of the item
boat-hat
manipulation of mental imagery
with age, we get better at mentally manipulating the images in our minds
(turn the hat upside down)
when rotating images, further rotation results in longer response times
how accurate are we at perceiving distance, etc, in our mental images?
we do have some representation of distance in our minds -- remember activity where we visualized the walk to starbucks, then to manley -- just picturing it actually took longer
then arrows pointing at dots -- the farther away the arrow, the longer the response time, because we’re recreating the image in order to make the judgement
distance and detail in mental imagery
remember the rabbit and elephant, and rabbit and fly?
you have to mentally zoom to see details on the rabbit, thus losing info on the elephant
but for the fly, RT is must lower, even though it’s the same scale ratio
the concept of distances changes our ability to imagine traversing that distance
Perception v. Imagery
a difference there, but an overlap in brain function
some of the same neurons fire when asked to imagine a baseball as when shown a baseball
so, these are category-specific neurons...
but there’s a differnece in visual cortex activation
visual cortex activation:
perception v. imagery
similar neurons light up, but there are differences
regions that light up during both perception and imagery
frontal lobe
visual cortex
TMS
transcranial magnetic stimulation
disrupts brain function in very specific areas for short periods of time
so if behavior is disrupted, the deactivated part of the brain is what is causing the behavior
results of TMS testing on perception and imagery
theoretically, zapping occipital lobe should only affect perception, frontal lobe only imagery
but there is overlap: both tasks are slowed in both circumstances
perhaps we perceive items, but use th the frontal lobes to name and categorize them...
Unilateral neglect
when patient ignores one half of the visual field
when asked to draw an image, the affected patient will only draw half of the object
brain damage and dissociations between imagery and perception
one guy could look at and reproduce a drawing of a cat, but not from his imagination
the other guy, with different brain damage, couldn’t name a picture of a cat, but could draw a cat from memory
Synesthesia represents?
evidence for separate but shared mechanisms in imagery and perception
flipping mental images of ambiguous figures
difficult!
perception can be quickly accessed, but one mental image may be stronger than the other...
ways to use imagery to improve memory
visually interacting images (hat-boat)
method of loci (items in a house)
pegword technique (one-bun, two-shoe)
peg word
associate mental images with each peg item
one-bun, two-shoe, three-tree
define language
hierarchical system
governed by rules
that uses a system of sounds or symbols
to express ideas
Universal traits of language
hierarchical -- sounds make words, words make sentences, sentences make novels
governed by rules regarding arrangement of components (although the rules themselves differ by culture)
language development across cultures
even cats have learned some language rules
all cultures use mimicking, etc
like the kids at the fridge
all have nouns, verbs, questions, tenses, etc
and don’t forget baby language
Dunstan
baby language!
universal language comprised of five sounds which occur naturally as a result of the bodily functions they represent
Skinner v. Chomsky
Skinner says we learn language through reinforcement
Chomsky says language is in our genes, because of the universaility of traits, and the fact that children create sentences they’ve never heard before
define psycholinguistics
studying the psychological process by which humans attain and use language
Lexicon
all the words a person understands
what they mean, how they sound, how they’re used
Phoneme
shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word
and it’s phonics -- the sound, not the spelling
Morphemes
smallest unit of language that has meaning or grammatical function
so friendliest has friend, li, and est, all of which add meaning
”doed” or “funner” show inappropriate combinations of morphemes
Phonemic restoration effect
we can fill in missing phonemes bsed on context
because of our familiarity with the language
Speech segmentation
the component pieces of speech: Context
understanding of meaning
understanding of sound and syntax
statistical learning
Word frequency effect
we respond more rapidly to high-freq words
measured in a lexical decision task
eye movement measurements and text
we jump over some words without looking at them at all, and are still able to grasp meaning
we’ll look at low-freq words longer
and maybe every single letter if we need to interpret something we’ve nver seen before
context effects and text
we attempt to figure out what a sentence means as we read it
lexical ambiguity
words and syntax have more than one meaning
”the rabbi married my sister”
we need to find context within the situation to determine meaning
including waiting for further words to be added to switch meaning...
Lexical priming
1. stimulus activates a representation of the stimulus
2. and we can respond more rapidly if activation is still present when stimulus is presented again
remember bug and spy and all that ... same category played in background makes response time faster, same word in different category (like bug) doesn’t have the same effect
bug + insect/spy
example of lexical priming...
define semantics
the meanings of words and sentences
(So things can be gramatically correct but still semantically wrong)
define syntax
rules for combining words into sentences
brain regions and semantics/syntax
different areas light up when understanding meaning v. producing grammatically correct words
so you can have difficulty grasping meaning, or you can have troulbe producing correct words
but you don’t necessarily have both
Parsing language
mentally grouping words in a sentence into phrases
the central process for determining the meaning of a sentence
cast iron sink
Parsing: syntax first approach
grammatical structure of the sentence determines parsing
Late Closure
Garden Path
not everyone agrees
Late Closure Parsing
syntax first approach to parsing
parser assumes a new word is part of current phrase (so the sink in cast iron sink, until we added the s to make it a verb)
Garden Path Parsing
syntax first approach to parsing
reader follows wherever you take her, including making the wrong decision
until there’s enough information to clarify your meaning
Parsing: Interactionist approach
Semantics has a greater influence over interpretation than syntax
which allows for lexical ambiguities to be resolved
the spy saw the man with the binoculars...
Tannenhouse apple towel thing
eye movements change when information suggests a revision of our interpretation
suggesting that syntactic and semantic info is used simultaneously
what has the primary role in interpreting sentences: semantics or syntax
tannehouse and his apple towel thing say both are used simultaneously
Understanding stories:
coherence
we form a representation that makes one part of the text relate to another part of the text
we assume that the first and last paragraphs are connected
we assume the story is coherent
Understanding stories:
inference
readers create information that is not explicitly stated
maybe this is why the book is better than the movie...
reader will claim that things were written or said that werent, based on inference
Why do we claim things were written or said that werent?
inference!
Anaphoric inference
this is how pronouns work...
we don’t have to repeat the name, because we’ve already estabilished a connection between it and a known set of pronouns
Instrumental Inference
we can infer that shakespeare was using a quill pen to do his work...
Causal Inference
we can determine that events in one clause affected the events in another
Types of Inference
anaphoric
instrumental
causal
Situation Model
we create mental imags to go along with a story
and thus represent events as if experiencing them
from the protag’s POV
so, reaction times were faster for a horizontal nail than a vertical nail when presented with “he hammered the nail into the wall”
Physiology of simulations
approximately the same areas light up as when actually doing the task
but less so
so if you read the word “legs” you get the same activation, though less intense, as when you move your leg
Semantic coordination (conversation)
conversations go quickly and smoothly if participants have shared knowledge
like when we talk in half thoughts, etc...
Given-new contract
the speaker constructs sentences so they include given info and new info, which allows the new info to become given, and so on...
example of given-new contract
Ed was given an alligator for his birthday
given here is that he had a birthday, new is the alligator info
then: the alligator was his favorite present:
given is he got the alligator for his birthday, new is that it was his favorite present
Syntactic priming
how one mimicks slang and accents
the production of a grammatical construction by one person increases the chance that the other person will use the same construction
and this reduces the computational load (speaking similarly requires less cognitive resources)
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language influences thought
like the spectrum of blues... we have special names to further differentiate the blues
categorical perception
stimuli in same categories are more difficult to discriminate than stimuli in two different categories
“Are these colors different (light blue and sky blue)” v. red and green
language and color perception
different languages can affect color perception (russian description of the blue chips was different)
but different languages have a similar “best” example of a color