• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

224 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

For Brentano, the subject matter of psychologywas...

a. sensations.b. perceptions.c. temporal patterns.d. associations.e. experiences

Like Wundt, Carr proposed that studying ____ would illuminate mental processes.

a. myths b. family relationships c. literary and artistic creations of a culture d. animals e. neurology

Play therapy,a standard technique of contemporary psychotherapy with children, wasintroduced by

a. Melanie Klein.b. Anna Freud.c. Karen Horney.d. Helene Deutsch.e. Erik Erikson.

For Watson,such subject matter as mind, consciousness, and images was

a. meaninglessfor a science of behavior.b. necessary for human thought.c. best dealt with by psychoanalysis.d. the necessary starting point for the study ofbehavior.e. regulated by Pavlov's law of reinforcement.

In Horney'ssystem, the central idea is

a. basicanxiety.b. the need for freedom from fear.c. the neurotic needs.d. the idealized self-image.e. the inferiority complex

Stumpf'smethod of observation was

a. phenomenology.b. retrospection.c. introspection.d. systematic experimental introspection.e. insight.

What ledPavlov to shift from a study of theology to that of animal psychology?

a. becoming familiar with the psychology of Wundtb. the work of Thorndikec. Darwin'stheoryd. the case of Clever Hanse. the writings of Fechner

For Brentano,the primary research method was

a. experimentation.b. observation.c. factor analysis.d. functional analysis.e. psychoanalysis.

Cattell's interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by

a. his work on reaction times in Wundt'slaboratory.b. Freud's development of projective tests.c. Hall's use of questionnaires.d. his meetingwith Galton while at Cambridge University.e. Hall's child study movement.

The effect of World War I on the evolution of psychological testing was to

a. establish ahospitable environment for such endeavors.b. identify the need for "culture fair"tests.c. establish a baseline of racial differences inIQs in the United States.d. refute the assumption that illiterates arementally retarded.e. pave the way for aptitude tests for high-schoolstudents.

Thepsychological study of music was pioneered by

a. Helmholtz.b. Fechner.c. Wundt.d. Stumpf.e. Külpe.

Our easyacceptance today of the notion that the study of individual differences isappropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work?

a. Queteletb. Helmholtzc. Galtond. Pearsone. Spencer

The term mentaltests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.

a. Galton; Cattellb. Cattell;Galtonc. Quetelet; Galtond. Galton; Quetelete. Huarte; Quetelet

Pfungstdemonstrated that the apparent thinking ability of the horse Clever Hans wasreally due to the animal's ability to respond to:

a. voice commands.b. headmovements.c. touches.d. odors.e. None of the choices are correct.

Pavlov's workeffected a change in focus from ____ to observable physiological events.

a. introspectionb. subjectivespeculation about associationismc. connectionismd. determinisme. mechanism

Whodiscovered the direction of travel of nerve impulses in the brain and spinalcord?

a. Flourensb. Fechnerc. Helmholtzd. Cajale. Gall

Titchenerexcluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists becausewomen

a. were not admitted to graduate programs inpsychology.b. were believed unable to grasp the pure researchmethods of experimentation.c. psychologists were almost exclusively engagedin applied research.d. could not be admitted without their husbands,and none had married experimental psychologists.e. were too pureto smoke.

Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the studyof the history of psychology is that one will learn the

a. relationshipsamong psychology's ideas, theories, and research strategies.b. contributions of the classic Greekphilosophers.c. origins of the experimental methods.d. evolution of the scientist-practitioner modelof clinical psychology.e. issues at the root of the pure versus appliedresearch conflict in psychology

What event(s) led common people to question whetherhumans were really unique creatures, totally unlike other species?

a. Many took cruises to South America and otherplaces where they were exposed to species of apes very similar to human beings.b. The tenet of natural selection became widelyknown and popular.c. They vieweddisplays of orangutans and a chimpanzee and a comparison of gorilla and humanskeletonsd. Helmholtz's and Fechner's research findingsmade such questioning inevitable.e. None of the choices are correct.

Regardless ofhow objective a science and its practitioners are alleged to be, that sciencewill be influenced by the

a. scientists' political beliefs.b. scientists' religious beliefs.c. policies of the government that funds thatscience's research.d. culture inwhich it is practiced.e. amount of funding it receives.

Whereas aconcern of Skinner was the improvement of society through his technology ofbehavior, Bandura's is more specific, namely the

a. alleviationof abnormal behavior.b. reduction of media violence.c. identification of the characteristics that aremost potent.d. identification of factors that influence locusof control.e. identification of the observable referents ofself-efficacy.

The firstpsychiatrist in formal practice in the United States was

a. Freud.b. Pinel.c. Vives.d. Rush.e. Dix.

Darwin'stheory of evolution is best reflected in the Jungian concept of

a. personal unconscious.b. collectiveunconscious.c. introversion.d. extraversion.e. self.

Whose systemwas a forerunner of contemporary cognitive psychology?

a. Tolman'sb. Guthrie'sc. Lewin'sd. Wertheimer'se. Köhler's

Who arguedthat consciousness, as a concept, was as unprovable as the concept of the soul?

a. Loebb. Watsonc. Pavlovd. Thorndikee. Angell

The representationof the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th-centuryreliance on

a. mechanism.b. determinism.c. experimentation.d. materialism.e. mentalism.

As he himselfacknowledged, Adler's childhood experiences are a direct reflection of hisconcept of

a. individual psychology.b. social interest.c. birth order.d. inferiorityfeelings.e. basic anxiety.

The egopsychologists emphasized the influence of ____ while de-emphasizing the role of____.

a. parents; biological forcesb. conscious forces; unconscious forcesc. conscious forces; social forcesd. socialforces; biological forcese. the superego; the id.

Descartes' notion that we are born with certainperceptual processes is also a principle of which modern school of

a. behavioristicb. psychoanalyticc. Gestaltd. phenomenologicale. humanistic

What is thesmallest detectable difference between two stimuli?

a. absolute thresholdb. doctrine of specific nerve energiesc. decision thresholdd. justnoticeable differencee. threshold of consciousness.

The doctrinethat explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms ofphenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is

a. reductionism.b. determinism.c. mechanism.d. positivism.e. materialism.

By the 1920sthe term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ____.

a. functionalismb. voluntarismc. existentiald. behaviorisme. introspection

The featureof modern psychology that distinguishes it from its antecedents is its

a. methodology.b. focus on learning.c. focus on motivation.d. focus on abnormal behavior.e. use of deductive logic.

The doctrinethat considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physicalterms by the existence and nature of matter is

a. positivism.b. materialism.c. mentalism.d. immaterialism.e. reductionism.

In Psychologyas the Behaviorist Views It, Watson argues that psychology is

a. a purelyexperimental branch of natural science.b. a radical environmentalism.c. in Kuhn's terms, a "paradigm."d. a return to Descartes's dualism.e. big enough to include both mental andbehavioral phenomena.

Titchener'smanner with his students during lectures was one of

a. formality.b. concern.c. humility.d. good humor.e. All of the choices are correct.

According toSchultz and Schultz, when a movement within psychology becomes a formalizedschool, the only way its momentum can be stopped is by its

a. success.b. complete disintegration.c. flexibility.d. over-reliance on its founder.e. misdeeds.

The"zeitgeist" means

a. the spirit ofthe times.b. a German dessert.c. the moment of discovery.d. the moment of change in scientific revolutions.e. a blizzard of activity.

Who firstdefined psychology as the study of behavior?

a. Watsonb. Cattellc. Pillsburyd. Pavlove. Washburn

The pursuitof knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of allknowledge to experience is

a. mentalism.b. empiricism.c. positivism.d. materialism.e. None of the choices are correct.

Who can besaid to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology?

a. Babbageb. Descartesc. La Mettried. Lockee. Comte

The thrust ofGestalt psychology's attack on behaviorism focused on the latter's

a. exclusive use of animal subjects.b. denial of perception.c. reductionism.d. notion of intervening variables.e. focus on learning.

According toLocke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of

a. association.b. deductive logic.c. sensing primary qualities.d. reflection.e. recombination

Psychology ismarked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline thatprovides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its

a. reliance on the experimental method in all itsresearch.b. focus on the study of overt behavior.c. use of the hypothetico-deductive method.d. national organizations (APA and APS).e. history.

Thehumanistic psychologists insisted on the study of

a. motivation.b. needs.c. normaladults.d. one's style of life.e. life-span development.

Freud'soverriding goal was to

a. not have to practice medicine.b. have an academic research career.c. describe andexplain the dynamics of human behavior.d. discover and develop an effective treatmentmethodology.e. analyze and overcome his own neuroses.

Hypnosisgarnered some scientific respectability through the work of

a. Mesmer on hysteria.b. Braid on neurohypnology.c. Braid onneurology.d. Gall on hysteria.e. Charcot on psychotherapy.

According toFechner, the effects of stimulus intensities are not ____ but are ____ to theamount of sensation that already exists.

a. equal; relatedb. relative; absolutec. noticeable; relevantd. related; equale. absolute;relative

The school ofthought that focuses on learning and perception and emphasizes the combinationof elements to produce new patterns is the ____ school.

a. structuralistb. behavioristc. Gestaltd. cognitivee. Würzburg

As hismeasure of learning, Ebbinghaus adapted a method from

a. the psychophysicists. b. Wundt's lab. c. the early mentalists. d. the Cartesian dualists. e. the associationists.

McDougallbelieved that human behavior

a. derives frominnate tendencies.b. could not be studied.c. was a function of God's will.d. could not be predicted or controlled.e. was solely determined by the environment

The Gestaltschool's major difference with behaviorists was over the

a. existence of the phi phenomenon.b. utility ofthe concept of consciousness.c. utility of the concept of perception.d. experimental method.e. use of introspection.

Rogers'clinical experience during the time he was developing his theory was with

a. neurotics.b. college students.c. the seriously disturbed.d. everyday people.e. incarcerated men.

A ____is a quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experiences that doesnot vary even when the actual sensory elements change.

a. Gestaltb. illusionc. perceptualconstancyd. state of consciousnesse. insight

In Watson'sfinal system, instincts:

a. exist, but there are only 3.b. do not exist.c. exist at birth and are limited, but more arelearned.d. do not exist at birth, but can be learned.e. are what drive most behaviors.

The personwho most strongly influenced humane reforms for the mentally ill in the UnitedStates was

a. Freud.b. Pinel.c. Vives.d. Rush.e. Dix.

Woodworth'ssystem of psychology, concerned with causal factors and motivations in feelingsand behavior, was known as

a. pragmatism.b. motivational psychology.c. synthetic psychology.d. dynamicpsychology.e. act psychology.

Substantialdoubts about and attacks on introspection

a. began when Titchener started using it as amethod of study.b. were unknown before the work of Titchener.c. began when Titchener started using it as amethod of study and were unknown before the work of Titchener.d. existed longbefore Titchener used the method.e. None of the choices are correct.

The notionthat children's development reflects the history of the human race is the

a. child study movement.b. primary law of evolution.c. collective unconscious.d. theoretical basis for Binet's tests.e. recapitulationtheory.

The point ofsensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to achange in a sensation is a definition of

a. the just noticeable difference.b. the absolute threshold.c. Weber's Law.d. thedifferential threshold.e. the stimulus change threshold.

To confusethe mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed wasto commit

a. introspective error.b. retrospective error.c. stimuluserror.d. inspection rather than introspection.e. retrospection rather than introspection.

Incontemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one's learning ofpaired associates. This technique was developed by

a. Titchener.b. James.c. Calkins.d. Dewey.e. Woolley.

One part ofthe cerebral cortex is essentially equal to another in its contribution tolearning; this is ____ principle of ____.

a. Watson's; equipotentialityb. Lashley's;equipotentialityc. Lashley's; mass actiond. Jastrow's; cortical substitutione. Jastrow's; mass action

What is oftenconsidered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States wasestablished by

a. Titchener.b. James.c. Cattell.d. Angell.e. Hall.

Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?

a. Spencerb. Hollerithc. Deweyd. Babbagee. James

Provided thatstudents and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was ____ to them.

a. distant but cordialb. kind andhelpfulc. condescendingd. dismissinge. None of the choices are correct.

Wundt'sdoctrine of apperception refers to

a. the breaking down of mental elements.b. perception.c. the process of training introspective observersover 10,000 observations.d. the processof organizing mental elements into a whole.e. None of the choices are correct.

The sum ofour experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener's definitionof

a. mind.b. conscious experience.c. consciousness.d. perception.e. apperception.

The Gestaltsystem was introduced to American scholars by

a. Wertheimer.b. Koffka.c. Köhler.d. Lewin.e. von Ehrenfels.

Anna Freud'spioneering work was

a. on the id.b. on the mechanisms of motivation.c. on childanalysis.d. realized only after her father's death and herself-analysis.e. the founding of a clinic for trainingpsychology teachers.

Hull's law ofprimary reinforcement is a restatement of

a. Hartley's law of contiguity.b. Rotter's locus of control.c. Thorndike'slaw of effect.d. Thorndike's law of exercise.e. Skinner's continuous reinforcement principle.

An approachto learning termed ____ was developed by Thorndike.

a. associationismb. reflexologyc. instrumental conditioningd. connectionisme. reinforcement

Although ittook twelve years to complete, this person's great book on psychologyrepresented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt'sapproach to psychology.

a. John Deweyb. Herbert Spencerc. Edward Bradford Titchenerd. James Angelle. William James

Who predictedthat humans in the future will live on the edge of starvation because thepopulation of humans increases geometrically while the supply of food increasesarithmetically?

a. Lamarckb. Lyellc. Huxleyd. Malthuse. Hooker

Thisresearcher systematically destroyed parts of the brain using extirpation.

a. Brocab. Gallc. Spurzheimd. Flourense. Fowler

According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has

a. engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole.b. been substantially more discriminatory against women than have other sciences.c. been substantially more discriminatory against minorities than have other sciences.d. focused on the reduction of discrimination since its beginnings.e. None of the choices are correct.

How did the British empiricists (BritE) and the German physiologists (GerP) differ in their approach to the study of the senses?

a. The BritE developed more precise experiments than the GerP to study the senses.b. The BritE applied mathematics to the study of the senses whereas the Germans did not.c. The BritE concentrated on the study of vision and the GerP studied hearing.d. The BritE studied the senses from the viewpoint of philosophy. The GerP used scientific methods to study the senses.e. They did not differ.

The unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs is

a. mediate experience.b. an unarticulated insight.c. a temporal form.d. the phi phenomenon.e. phenomenology.

There are no structural psychologists left in the United States. However, structural psychology was a success because it

a. discovered metal elements that compose consciousness.b. helped to establish psychology as an independent science.c. was able to perfect the method of introspection as a means to explore the nature of consciousness.d. discovered the phi phenomenon which shows that mentality has the job of trying to interpret reality from sensory inputs.e. None of the choices are correct.

Which psychologist burned his/her own letters, manuscripts, and research notes before s/he died?

a. B. F. Skinnerb. John Watsonc. Karen Horneyd. Sigmund Freude. Margaret Washburn

____'s phrenology proposed that the topography of a person's skull revealed his of her intellectual and emotional characteristics.

a. Flourensb. Gallc. Spurzheimd. Brocae. Hall

From the 1940s to the 1960s, who dominated American psychology?

a. Tolman's students and disciplesb. functional theoristsc. Hulliansd. radical behavioristse. Skinnerians

In the computer metaphor, cognitive processes are represented by

a. input.b. output.c. storage and retrieval.d. the software program.e. the chip.

Of all the schools of psychology initiated by 1930, only behaviorism and psychoanalysis

a. have maintained their identities.b. have been absorbed into the mainstream.c. are the dominant schools in contemporary psychology.d. maintained a focus on the pseudo-problem of consciousness.e. are the primary schools of thought in contemporary psychology.

Horney called a false picture of oneself

a. a neurotic need.b. compliance.c. detachment.d. the style of life.e. the idealized self-image.

The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is

a. reductionism.b. determinism.c. mechanism.d. positivism.e. materialism.

According to Wundt, psychology should be concerned with the study of

a. mediate experience.b. the time required for sensory organs to transmit impulses to consciousness.c. conscious experience.d. the different stages of childhood development.e. Immediate experience.

From the 1950s to the 1980's, American Psychology was shaped more by the work of ____ than by the work of any other psychologist.

a. Tolmanb. Hullc. Skinnerd. Tolman.e. Mowrer

Hall was one of the first American psychologists to become interested in

a. equal political opportunity for women.b. sexual equality.c. physiological psychology.d. psychoanalysis.e. behaviorism.

According to James, the value or worth of beliefs can be evaluated in terms of

a. the spiritual basis for a belief.b. the habitual nature of a belief.c. whether it works or not.d. its adaptive value.e. its effect on emotions.

The new discipline of psychology was the product of the union of

a. philosophy and ethics.b. philosophy and physics.c. physics and biology.d. physics and physiology.e. philosophy and physiology.

While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?

a. Titchenerb. Ebbinghausc. Külped. Brentanoe. Galton

The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in

a. comparative psychology.b. behaviorism.c. clinical psychology.d. industrial psychology.e. cognitive psychology.

The cultural psychology of Wundt examined evidence from

a. studies of children and their thinking.b. examination of language, myths, customs, law, and morals.c. philosophy.d. experimentation.e. a content analysis of contemporary newspapers.

Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he

a. used reaction times to measure the speed of recalling information from memory.b. wrote the first definitive work on child psychology.c. successfully challenged Wundt's claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory.d. united with Gestalt psychology to oppose the spread of Wundt's psychology in Germany.e. taught Freud and influenced humanism and Gestalt psychology.

An early test of Lewin's tension theory was done by Zeigarnik who discovered that humans

a. suffer depression when they experience constant failures.b. better remember an unusual item in a series of items.c. tend to remember unfinished tasks better than finished ones.d. use phenomenology when the introspect.e. sometimes show less insight than do apes.

The concept of operationism can be traced to

a. Descartes.b. Comte.c. Mach.d. the British empiricists.e. the French materialists.

The white rat and the rat maze became staples of research in psychology in 1900 with the work of

a. Jacques Loeb.b. C. Lloyd Morgan.c. Willard S. Small.d. Carl Lashley.e. John B. Watson.

According to ____, animals have no soul and thus are automata.

a. Descartesb. Darwinc. Galtond. Romanese. Morgan

The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is

a. reductionism.b. determinism.c. mechanism.d. materialism.e. positivism

Jung called the two basic attitudes within the person

a. anima and animus.b. introversion and extraversion.c. thinking and feeling.d. sensing and intuiting.e. judging and sensing.

With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of ____ revealed that southern Whites test as less intelligent than northern Blacks.

a. Goddardb. Thorndikec. Herrnsteind. Termane. Bond

The technique that Hull added to the then-accepted battery of experimental methods was

a. simple observation.b. systematic controlled observation.c. experimental testing of hypotheses.d. the hypothetico-deductive method.e. one-trial learning.

This popular lecturer at the University of Vienna influenced many students including von Ehrenfels and Freud and was the intellectual antecedent of Gestalt psychology and humanistic psychology.

a. Edward Titchenerb. Hermann Ebbinghausc. Franz Brentanod. Oswald Külpee. Carl Stumpf

James Mill's radical associationism bears some resemblance to the work of which modern psychologist?

a. Freud b. Rogers c. Maslow d. Wundt e. Skinner

Darwin and Wallace developed similar theories of evolution independently; Newton and Leibnitz developed the calculus independently; Twitmyer discovered "Pavlovian" conditioning before Pavlov did. Such independent discoveries are attributed to which theory?

a. syncopatedb. personalisticc. naturalisticd. Ortgeiste. evolution

____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.

a. Erasmus Darwinb. Charles Darwinc. Jean-Baptiste Lamarckd. Baine. Charles Lyell

Pavlov's view of psychology was

a. initially favorable, then somewhat negativeb. always negativec. always favorabled. initially negative, then somewhat favorablee. uncertain; he never said one way or the other.

One of the strongest influences the humanistic systems exerted on psychology was the

a. use of videotapes and audiotapes as sources of data for analysis.b. use of co-therapists.c. restoration of the study of consciousness to psychology.d. focus on the functional analysis of behavior.e. attempt to operationally define concepts and to test them experimentally.

Edward C. Tolman's system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of goal-orientation in behavior is called

a. molar behavior.b. stimulus-response associations.c. intervening behaviorism.d. purposive behaviorism.e. goal setting theory.

Charcot, Janet, and Krafft-Ebing had researched ____ prior to Freud's work on the same idea.

a. infantile sexualityb. libidoc. catharsisd. the importance of dreamse. All of the choices are correct.

Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because

a. Germans were resistant to introspection.b. experimentation was not valued.c. it was not seen as having practical value.d. there were not enough journals and textbooks.e. Wundt could not adequately distinguish between feelings and sensations.

This person was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology

a. Karen Horneyb. Cora Friedlinec. Margaret Meadd. Christine Ladd-Frankline. Margaret Floy Washburn

Watson's dissertation was on

a. the conscious experience of rats.b. the conscious experience of toddlers.c. the latent learning of rats.d. fear conditioning in rats.e. fear conditioning in toddlers.

Forensic psychology was established with the work of

a. Scott.b. Hall.c. Münsterberg.d. Healey.e. Witmer.

William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate that:

a. the analysis of consciousness into mental elements is difficult but possible.b. the use of introspection to study consciousness is possible.c. consciousness is not as important as the unconscious in controlling behavior since consciousness is always changing.d. the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements.e. fish swimming upstream think harder than those swimming downstream.

Titchener's definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is

a. conscious experience.b. behavioral events.c. mental and behavioral events.d. both conscious and unconscious experiences.e. anything that could be observed scientifically.

The first person to de-condition a learned fear was

a. Rayner.b. Watson.c. Jones.d. Lashley.e. McDougall.

Wundt's focus was on ____, whereas Titchener's was on ____.

a. introspection; inspectionb. elements of consciousness; synthesis of elementsc. apperception; perceptiond. synthesis; apperceptione. synthesis of elements; analysis of elements

According to Schultz and Schultz, "perhaps no other psychologist was so devoted to the problems of the scientific method" than was ____.

a. Watson.b. Tolman.c. Hull.d. Holt.e. Skinner.

Who argued for the sterilization of mental defectives and delinquents and cash incentives for the best and the brightest to marry and have children?

a. Scottb. Hallc. Yerkesd. Münsterberge. Cattell

Tolman specified that the independent variables (stimuli) affect processes within the organism. These processes then control the occurrence of behavior (response). These internal processes are known as

a. operational variables.b. mental sets.c. cognitive variables.d. intervening variables.e. concrete variables.

Behaviorism was officially established in

a. 1904, at the St. Louis Exposition.b. 1907, with Bekhterev's Objective Psychology.c. 1908, with Watson's lectures at Yale.d. 1911, with McDougall's Psychology: The Study of Behavior.e. 1913, with Watson's "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It."

Freud proposed that

a. dreams result from something in the patient's conscious mind.b. nothing in a dream is without a cause.c. dreams were a rich source of intellectual but not emotional material.d. dreams could be completely without meaning.e. dreams were unrelated to the underlying causes of a disturbance.

Darwin's ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin's work was his

a. hard data to support such a theory.b. focus on lower animals.c. work on emotions.d. idea of natural selection.e. idea of survival of the fittest.

A component of the Zeitgeist at the beginning of the 20th century that influenced some dissenters within psychoanalysis was the

a. American notion of manifest destiny.b. close of the Victorian era.c. atrocities of World War I.d. women's movement (the suffragettes).e. recognition of the influence of social forces.

Contrary to the notion of a passive mind, as portrayed by the British empiricists, the German philosopher Kant held that the mind

a. is a stream of consciousness.b. actively organizes sensory information into a coherent experience.c. actively organizes sensory information according to a mechanical process of associationd. is sensitive to perceptions, not sensations.e. All of the choices are correct.

Electrical stimulation as a method of mapping the cerebral cortex was introduced by

a. Galvani and Aldinib. Flourens and Hallc. Gall and Spurzheimd. Broca and Kinnebrooke. Fritsch and Hitzig

One of Helmholtz's particular contributions to psychology was his work on

a. vision.b. the skin senses.c. the conservation of energy.d. geometric axioms.e. mental telegraphy.

The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on

a. physics.b. biology.c. experimentation.d. deduction.e. psychophysics.

The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it is called

a. positivism.b. science.c. operationism.d. mechanism.e. determinism.

Skinner claimed that he studied ____ while Pavlov studied ____.

a. free behavior; reflexive behaviorb. acquired behavior; reflexive behaviorc. elicited behavior; emitted behaviord. explanations; descriptionse. operant behavior; respondent behavior

The Gestalt school's major difference with behaviorists was over the

a. existence of the phi phenomenon.b. utility of the concept of consciousness.c. utility of the concept of perception.d. experimental method.e. use of introspection.

The first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence was

a. Galileo's telescope.b. Babbage's calculating machine.c. La Mettrie's self-winding watch.d. Descartes's automata.e. Newton's clocks.

The origin of the notion of central tendency should be attributed to

a. Quetelet.b. Darwin.c. Galton.d. Pearson.e. Cattell.

According to Herbart, if a new idea is incompatible with pre-existing ideas, the new idea will be

a. remembered.b. forgotten.c. denied.d. inhibited.e. rationalized.

Köhler's findings occurred simultaneously with ____ discovery of ____.

a. Wertheimer's; productive thinkingb. Thorndike's; the law of effectc. Yerkes'; the army Beta testd. Wertheimer's; isomorphism e. Yerkes'; ideational learning

In general, the designation "third force" applies to

a. Skinner's behaviorism.b. the neo-Freudians.c. Gestalt psychology.d. humanistic psychology.e. social learning theories.

Who revised the Binet intelligence test into what is known as the Stanford-Binet test?

a. Terman b. Goddard c. Cattell d. Witmer e. Yerkes

To the end of his life, Skinner questioned whether psychology could be a science if it

a. ignored biological factors.b. was a science of the mind.c. could not explain cognition.d. did not adapt to the changing world.e. was not a natural science in its methods.

Who wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising, the first book on the psychology of advertising?

a. Münsterbergb. Beersc. Goodenoughd. Healeye. Scott

Pavlov's conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.

a. reinforcementb. knowledgec. two or more unconditioned responsesd. S-R connectionse. reinforcements and S-R connections.

The school of thought that focuses on learning and perception and emphasizes the combination of elements to produce new patterns is the ____ school.

a. structuralistb. behavioristc. Gestaltd. cognitivee. Würzburg

Psychology became an independent discipline during the

a. renaissance.b. last quarter of the eighteenth century.c. last quarter of the nineteenth century.d. first decade of the nineteenth century.e. first decade of the twentieth century.

Pavlov ____.

a. replicated Köhler's work on Tenerife with the same resultsb. did not attempt to replicate Köhler's work because it was nonsensicalc. replicated Köhler's work but found it to be "chaotic"d. did not attempt to replicate Köhler's work because it made perfect sensee. revised his own system as a result of Köhler's work

The significance of Ebbinghaus's work is in his

a. finding that longer material takes more time to learn.b. rigorous use of experimental control and his quantitative analysis of data.c. tolerance for boredom.d. use of large numbers of subjects to replicate his experiments.e. ability to further the approach and findings of Wundt.

Tolman's contribution to the decline of S-R psychology was the

a. concept of cognitive maps.b. Gestalt principles of organization.c. concept of habit strength.d. work on eyelid conditioning.e. concept of self-efficacy.

According to Tolman's learning theory, as a rat learns all of the sign-Gestalt relationships in a maze, the rat has acquired a

a. habit.b. drive.c. tropism.d. cognitive map.e. good habit.

At the time of Freud's death, the dominant form of American psychology was

a. functionalism.b. behaviorism.c. Gestalt psychology.d. humanistic psychology.e. cognitive psychology.

The analogy that the mind is like an iceberg, with its bulk hidden from view (unconscious), was first suggested by

a. Leibnitz.b. Herbart.c. Darwin d. Fechner.e. Freud.

Watson's second career was in

a. pediatric psychology.b. behavior modification.c. advertising.d. personnel selection.e. developmental psychology.

The notion of analysis of consciousness is, in James's view, the

a. psychologists' fallacy.b. strength of experimentation.c. difference between immediate and mediate experience.d. basic difference between structuralism and functionalism.e. difference between religion and spirituality.

The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were

a. World War I and World War II.b. World War II and the VA hospital system.c. the works of Binet and Freud.d. Witmer's work and the world wars.e. the influx of German psychologists in the 1930s and the VA hospital system.

The thesis of sociobiology challenged the assumption that

a. humans are irrational.b. everyone is created equal.c. biological forces alone foster or limit human development.d. All of the choices are correct.e. None of the choices are correct.

____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.

a. Erasmus Darwinb. Charles Darwinc. Jean-Baptiste Lamarckd. Baine. Charles Lyell

The particular contribution of Pavlov's work to Watson's behaviorism was Pavlov's

a. objective methodology.b. evidence of the feasibility of an objective psychology.c. refutation of Dewey's criticisms of the reflex arc concept.d. refutation of the laboratory animal.e. refutation of Thorndike's law of effect.

German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because

a. there were only two of them, so each received only the most talented faculty and students.b. there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike.c. the British and the French were using unscientific methods to research the mind.d. anyone with independent income could be a gentleman-scientist.e. None of the answers are correct.

According to Lewin, life space...

a. is another term for locus of control. b. refers only to the physical environment in which a person lives. c. represents the goals a person has in life. d. corresponds to all the events that can influence a person's behavior. e. is similar to sensitivity training.

The administration at John Hopkins University considered Watson's proposed study of the effects of ____ to be dangerous and stopped it.

a. the conditioned reflex on fear in Little Albertb. severe shock on learning in ratsc. free sex on religious beliefsd. alcohol and sex education films on adolescentse. cocaine on driving behavior

The inclusion of cognitive factors in the theories of ____ altered American behaviorism

a. Skinner and Tolmanb. Kasparov and Tolmanc. Bandura and Rotterd. Watson and Yerkese. Seligman and Maslow

One of the strongest influences the humanistic systems exerted on psychology was the

a. use of videotapes and audiotapes as sources of data for analysis.b. use of co-therapists.c. restoration of the study of consciousness to psychology.d. focus on the functional analysis of behavior.e. attempt to operationally define concepts and to test them experimentally.

Skinner's former students, ____ and ____, demonstrated that operant conditioning can be taken out of the animal lab and applied to the real word.

a. Barnum; Baileyb. Gillaspy; Bihmc. Schultz; Schultzd. Fritsch; Hitzige. Breland; Breland

Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe's view is known as

a. intentionality.b. act psychology.c. imageless thought.d. retrospection.e. systematic experimental realism

While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.

a. Walter Pillsburyb. John Watsonc. Edward Thorndiked. Edwin Burket Twitmyere. Willard Small

The study of the total organism as it functions in its environment was the focus of the system posited by

a. James.b. Dewey.c. Angell.d. Darwin.e. Woodworth.

Although it took twelve years to complete, this person's great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt's approach to psychology.

a. John Deweyb. Herbert Spencerc. Edward Bradford Titchenerd. James Angelle. William James

The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is

a. mentalism.b. empiricism.c. positivism.d. materialism.e. None of the choices are correct.

Operationism was formulated by

a. John B. Watson.b. B.F. Skinner.c. Percy Bridgman.d. Edward Tolman.e. Clark Hull.

Maslow's data and research methodology have been criticized because of a/an

a. use of subjective criteria.b. small sample of subjects.c. ambiguous and inconsistent use of terms.d. All of the choices are correct.e. None of the choices are correct.

Gestalt psychology started as a movement opposed to

a. functionalism.b. behaviorism.c. Wundt's approach.d. Titchener's system.e. structuralism.

The modern notion of subliminal perception rests on the idea that the threshold of perception or consciousness can be determined. The first experimental illustration of psychological threshold was demonstrated by

a. Helmholtz.b. Weber.c. Fechner.d. Wundt.e. Freud.

The goal of Freud's therapies was to

a. investigate the "false memory" syndrome.b. determine the incidence and prevalence of childhood sexual experiences in adult psychiatric patients.c. refine the techniques of free association and dream analysis.d. make the unconscious conscious.e. All of the choices are correct.

The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by

a. Galvani.b. Huarte.c. Sherrington.d. Romanes.e. Morgan.

The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it is called

a. positivism.b. science.c. operationism.d. mechanism.e. determinism.

The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by

a. Hall.b. Cattell.c. Binet.d. Terman.e. Wechsler.

The essential difference between Wallace's theory of evolution and Darwin's was that the work of the former

a. was a restatement of Lamarck's ideas.b. was a restatement of Spencer's ideas.c. did not have empirical data to support it.d. included the heritability of acquired traits.e. was suppressed by Darwin.

The essence of the Gestalt system is found in the work of the philosopher

a. Kant.b. Leibnitz.c. La Mettrie.d. Locke.e. James Mill.

Concurrent with the rise of Gestalt psychology, the Zeitgeist in physics was embracing

a. positivism.b. operationism.c. phenomenology.d. field theory.e. topology.

The first African American president of the APA was

a. Frances Cecil Sumner.b. Charles Henry Turner.c. Kenneth Clark.d. Mamie Phipps Clark.e. None of the choices are correct.

Which philosopher believed that the only things that humans know with certainty are those objects that are perceived?

a. Rene Descartesb. John Lockec. David Hartleyd. James Mille. George Berkeley

For Watson, the mentalistic term thinking could be

a. redefined as the behavior of subvocal talking.b. measured by its behavior correlates (gestures).c. observed in measures of movements of the vocal apparatus.d. All of the choices are correct.e. None of the choices are correct.

The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to

a. the bipartisan problem.b. the freethinking problem.c. the mind-body problem.d. positivism.e. theology.

Which British empiricist championed women's rights and condemned the unequal status of women?

a. David Hartleyb. John Stuart Millc. James Milld. David Humee. John Locke

The criticisms directed at the method of introspection are more relevant to the kind of introspection practiced by ____ than by ____.

a. Wundt; Külpeb. Külpe; Titchenerc. Wundt; Locked. Wundt; Titchener and Külpee. Titchener and Külpe; Wundt

Skinner was the complete opposite of Hull with regard to the

a. importance of contiguity.b. importance of reinforcement.c. focus on operants rather than on respondents.d. quantification of responses.e. focus on theory.

A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was

a. dynamic psychology.b. childhood influences on later behavior.c. a central organizing mechanism as a determinant of behavior.d. the unconscious.e. sex as a motive or drive.

A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was

a. materialism.b. empiricism.c. positivism.d. mechanism.e. reductionism.

The doctrine that recognizes only naturalphenomena or facts that are objectively observable is

a. materialism.b. empiricism.c. positivism.d. mechanism.e. reductionism.

The sum of our experiences accumulated over alifetime is Titchener's definition of

a. mind.b. consciousness.c. memory.d. apperception.e. learning.

Who coined the phrase "survival of the fittest"?

a. Jamesb. Galtonc. Deweyd. Spencere. Darwin

The most important consequence of functionalism was

a. the replacement of structuralism.b. the replacement of experimentalism.c. the status it gave to pragmatism.d. applied psychology.e. clinical psychology.

The primary form of psychoanalysis practiced in the United States for some 30 years after Sigmund Freud left Vienna was

a. orthodox psychoanalysis.b. ego psychology.c. object relations analysis.d. analytical psychology.e. individual psychology.

In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in

a. psychophysics.b. physiological psychology.c. social psychologyd. volkerpsychologiee. introspection.

The school of thought that deals with conscious experience as it is dependent on the experiencing person is the ____ school.

a. structuralistb. functionalistc. Gestaltd. humanistice. cognitive

According to Freud in his first lecture at Clark University, psychoanalysis originated with

a. himself.b. Fechner.c. Breuer.d. Kant and Leibnitz.e. the British associationists.

Perhaps the major contribution of Gestalt psychology to contemporary systems was the

a. focus on perception.b. focus on the principles of perceptual organization.c. legitimization of conscious experiences.d. similarity between Gestalt insight learning and Freud's notion of insight.e. precision of its methodology.

The inclusion of cognitive factors in the theories of ____ altered American behaviorism

a. Skinner and Tolmanb. Kasparov and Tolmanc. Bandura and Rotterd. Watson and Yerkese. Seligman and Maslow

Despite all his protests, Watson embraced the structuralist goal of

a. reductionism.b. determinism.c. mechanism.d. relativism.e. vitalism.

Like Skinner, Lewin argued that

a. a mathematical model was the ultimate goal of psychology.b. the individual person should be the focus of study.c. the "whole" of the environment and S-R contingencies must be considered in the functional analysis of behavior.d. statistics were not useful.e. behavior should be the focus of psychology.

The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the

a. fact of variation among members of the species.b. heritability of variations.c. process of natural selection.d. tenet of survival of the fittest.e. normal distribution of traits in a population.

The puzzle box is traditionally associated with the work of

a. Thorndike.b. Watson.c. Skinner.d. Köhler.e. Tolman.

A fundamental difference between Descartes's psychology and that of Locke was their position about the existence of

a. innate ideas.b. derived ideas.c. idea doctrines.d. simple ideas.e. complex ideas.

This is the most recently developed approach to psychology.

a. behavioral psychologyb. evolutionary psychologyc. cognitivismd. All of the choices are correcte. psychoanalysis

By the era of Freud's medical training, the dominant view in psychiatry was

a. psychic determinism.b. psychic mechanism.c. psychophysiological.d. psychosomatic.e. somatic.

The school of thought that deals solely with observable behaviors that can be described in objective terms is the ____ school.

a. structuralistb. behavioristc. Gestaltd. cognitivee. humanistic

Galton's influence on Cattell led to

a. Cattell promoting the use of experimental and control groups.b. Cattell's method of average error.c. Cattell's work on the army Alpha and army Beta tests.d. Witmer's work with dyslexic children.e. the study of large groups rather than single subjects.

For Watson, introspection was

a. irrelevant.b. appropriate only for research with normal humans.c. acceptable as used by Wundt, i.e., with systematic observation, controls, and replication.d. acceptable only if performed by exceptionally well-trained observers.e. necessary to the understanding of behavior.

What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the "spirit of mechanism"?

a. automobileb. pneumatic pressurec. metronomed. clocke. computer

The behaviorist premise that all behavior is learned was challenged by

a. the Brelands' work on instinctual drift.b. Harlow's work with monkey-mothers.c. Seligman's work on biological preparedness.d. All of the choices are correct.e. None of the choices are correct.

The most outstanding feature of Lewin's social psychology is

a. sensitivity dynamics.b. group dynamics.c. the social field.d. leadership styles.e. psychological action research.

The first person to argue for the humane treatment of the mentally ill was

a. Freud.b. Pinel.c. Vives.d. Rush.e. Dix.

Jung's theoretical system is known as

a. individual psychology.b. neoanalytic psychology.c. analytical psychology.d. identity psychology.e. postmodern psychoanalysis.

When two events or objects are experienced in sequence, Hume says these ideas become associated in what he calls the

a. law of resemblance.b. law of contiguity.c. law of repetition.d. law of cause and effect.e. law of creative synthesis.

The spiritual father of humanistic psychology is considered to be

a. Wertheimer.b. Titchener.c. May.d. Maslow.e. Rogers.

Watson was attracted to psychology through his association with

a. Dewey.b. Angell.c. Loeb.d. Carr.e. Baldwin.

Wundt's system is most accurately called

a. structural psychology.b. experimental psychology.c. physiological psychology.d. psychophysics.e. reductionism.

Watson's view of consumers' responses was much like

a. Descartes's view of automata.b. Wundt's view of feelings.c. James's view of emotion.d. Pavlov's view of cats.e. Dewey's view of reflexes.

The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by

a. Münsterberg.b. Freud.c. Goddard.d. Healey.e. Witmer.

The fundamental difference between the Binet tests and the army Alpha and Beta tests was that

a. Binet's tests were in French; the army tests were in English.b. the army tests included sensorimotor skills and reaction times.c. Binet's tests were individually administered; the army tests were for groups.d. the army tests could not assess mental ages lower than 17.e. Binet's tests required literate subjects; the army tests did not.

Köhler argued that solving a problem requires

a. experience with the tools available in the perceptual field.b. a restructuring of the perceptual field.c. opposable thumbs.d. critical thinking skills.e. transfer of training.

Greek philosophers studied issues involving

a. motivation.b. abnormal behavior.c. learning.d. thought.e. All of the choices are correct.

Watson adopted the conditioned reflex method of research established by

a. James and Peirce.b. Pavlov and Bekhterev.c. Angell and Carr.d. Woodworth and Cattell.e. Wundt and Titchener.

The historical treatment of Freud's impact upon psychology is still incomplete because

a. he changed his ideas so many times.b. many of his most important works have not been translated into English.c. many of his papers and letters will not be publicly available until later in the 21st century.d. All of the choices are correct.e. None of the choices are correct.

In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus, he is an intellectual ancestor of

a. behaviorism.b. functionalism.c. structuralism.d. the French materialists.e. S-R psychology.