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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

I/O psychology

psychological principles applied to work

army alpha/beta tests

stanford binet tests for army placement. test multiple people at once. useful for career placement.

Hawthorne studies

changes in lighting, breaks, and hours were made to increase productivity - but productivity increases even in bad conditions. this is because social factors impact your work.

I/O psychology is NOT

a company's psychologist, HR, one-on-one counseling, solely focused on productivity

organization as an organism

dependent on outside resources with a goal of survival

independent variable

doesn't depend on another variable


the variable being predicted, i.e. dependent variable or outcome variable


organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon


prediction about the relationship among variables


hypothesized variable that explains a thought, behavior, or emotion.

not observable.


practical terms to define a construct


participants are randomly assigned to different conditions


participants are not randomly assigned to conditions. typically pre-existing groups

non-experimental research

most common in I/O research. observational or survey design. not random.

descriptive statistics

summarize, organize, and describe data

inferential statistics

test hypotheses and make inferences from data

statistically significant

the result is unlikely to have happened by chance


correlation coefficient





criterion problem

if the focus of I/O is performance and we want to enhance the effectiveness of behavior, we need to agree on what performance is before we can study it

classic model of job performance

one dimensional. performance is all that matters. objective measure of outcomes used (dollars in sales, units produced, money earned etc)

weaknesses of classic model

objective measures don't account for third variables, they don't exist in many fields, and they may be unrelated for the same job

job performance

behavior, under control of the individual, that contributes to organizational goals




evaluation of results


using resources well


value of performance

job performance essential to ALL jobs

- job specific task proficiency

- demonstrating effort

- maintaining discipline

job performance essential to SOME jobs

- non-job-specific task proficiency

- written & oral communication

- facilitating peer & team performance

- supervision & leadership

- management & administration

typical performance

everything leading up to your very best

maximal performance

doing your very best at a job

criterion contamination

capturing something extra that doesn't relate to performance

criterion deficiency

missing information about performance


organizational citizenship behavior






civic virtue


helping behavior


basic consideration


not complaining


being a good citizen

civic virtue

good behavior toward the company

4 motives of OCBs

- affective states

- reciprocity motives

- impression management

- role expectations

affective states

good mood

reciprocity motive

paying back your job

"for them"

impression management

makes you look good

"for me"

role expectations

see good behavior as part of your job


counterproductive workplace behavior

organization directed deviance

primarily harms the organization

interpersonally directed deviance

harassment, gossip, etc. primarily harms specific people

property deviance

theft, damage, sabotage of items

production deviance

absences, substance abuse, sloppy work. harms productivity

hostile motives

the intent is to harm


instrumental motives

the intent is to reach a specific goal


proximal processes leading to CWBs

- frustration/anger

- instrumental aggression

- control/powerlessness

- injustice/inequity

- reciprocity (CWB -> CWB)

- self-regulation failure

offender characteristics leading to CWBs

- locus of control

- self-esteem/narcissism/ego

- achievement striving

- impulsivity

CWB intervention strategies

selection, policies and practices, good management, incident response

policies and practices

pre-emptive preventative measures, risk assessment, self-examinations, dispute resolution process, security systems

good management

to improve working conditions, ethical climate, training on risk factor identification and termination practices

incident response

treat harm and prevent future events, show support, remove offender, employee-assistance-programs, reaction teams

job analysis

what someone does, and what characteristics are needed to do it

worker oriented J.A.

focuses on attributes of worker necessary to accomplish tasks

task oriented J.A.

begins with statement of tasks and what they accomplish


knowledge, skills, abilities, others


collection of facts and info about a particular domain


practiced acts, learned or developed through experience


stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior. innate. based on luck.

other characteristics

interests, personality, etc that will help with a job

critical incidents approach

ask about incidents that were really good, or really bad. rare but important events.

3 types of performance data

objective vs. judgmental

hands-on performance measures

electronic performance monitoring

objective vs. judgmental

company records of absences, vs. subjective memories of when someone was at work

hands-on performance measures

walkthrough of how a job is done. could be simulated.

electronic performance monitoring

using tech to monitor jobs

3 factors influencing performance ratings

1. task performance

2. contextual performance/OCBs

3. counter-productive performance/CWBs

5 types of rating formats

- graphic rating scales

- checklist

- weighted checklist

- forced-choice format

- behaviorally-anchored rating scales


behaviorally anchored rating scales

Employee comparison methods

direct and simple comparison of two people

simple ranking

ranked from top to bottom according to proficiency

paired comparison

each person in a group is paired and compared with another individual in the group. excessive.

forced distribution rating system

performance rating sources

supervisors, peers, self-ratings, subordinates, customers/suppliers

rating from supervisors

most common. but many supervisors avoid it.

rating from peers

more likely to know about performance, but conflict of interest is likely


conflict of interest in terms of rating-self

subordinate ratings

these ratings must be kept anonymous

customer & supplier ratings

these ratings are important from a business strategy vantage point - give the customer a voice

360 degree ratings

ratings from all sources

rating errors

central tendency, leniency-severity, halo

central tendency error

raters choose a mid-point on a scale when an extreme would be better

leniency-severity error

raters are unusually harsh or easy

halo error

same rating assigned on a series of dimensions, causing all rating to look similar.

administrative rater training

show them the form ahead of time and explain it

psychometric rater training

make raters aware of the errors in rating in hopes of reducing error. accuracy lost with this type.

frame of reference rater training

based on the assumption that the rater needs context - provide performance info, ensure they know anchors, practice the test, and provide feedback about their practice.

motivations for rating

raters use the process as a means to an end. use the performance rating as an activity with three stakeholders: rater, ratee, and organization

useful performance feedback

must have frequency and specificity, and refer to behavior that can be changed

sequence of hiring

recruitment, assessment, then decisions

cognitive abilities

ability to reason and solve problems

sensory abilities

sight, hearing, etc

psychomotor abilities

finger dexterity is an example

physical abilities

muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, movement quality


biographical data from a person's past

cognitive ability tests

test brain functioning/reasoning abilities

personality tests

tests your OCEAN status

integrity tests

personality test that assesses tendency to be honest/dependable

situational judgment tests

tests that assess your ability to choose most appropriate action in workplace situations

work samples

work samples and simulations test your on-the-job ability

assessment centers

method that places candidate through worksamples and other assessment tools. involves many individuals at once.

does faking matter?

this has effects on validity, and individual's standing, and perceptions

ways to reach applicants

company website, job board, social networking, webinars, ad placement, etc. are methods of this

selection ratio

ratio of number of job positions to the number of job applicants. number between zero and one.

selection errors


goal: screen out potential offenders before hiring

personality acronym