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12 Cards in this Set
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probability 
a fraction or a proportion of all the possible outcomes. probability of A= number of outcomes classified as A/ total number of possible outcomes 

random sampling 
requires that each individual has an equal chance of being selected and that the probability of being selected stays constant from one selection to the next if more than one individual is selected. 

sampling distribution 
a distribution of statistics obtained by selecting all of the possible samples of a specific size from a population 

distribution of sample means 
the collection of sample means for all of the possible random samples of a particular size (n) that can be obtained from a population


sampling error 
the natural discrepancy or amount of error, between a sample statistic and its corresponding population parameter 

standard error 
standard error is the standard deviation of the distribution of sample means. measures the standard distance between a sample mean (M) and the population mean. tells how much error to expect if you are using a sample mean to represent a population mean 

standard deviation 
provides measure of the standard or average, distance from the mean 

alpha level 
the level of significance, the probability value that is used to define the concept of "very unlikely" in a hypothesis test 

effect size 
intended to provide a measurement of the absolute magnitude of a treatment effect, independent of the size of the sample(s) being used 

cohen's d 
mean difference/ standard deviation 

statistical power 
the probability that the test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. the probability that the test will identify a treatment effect if one really exists 

when is a power analysis conducted? 
before the actual conducted research study 