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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Subjective vs. Objective

Top-Down vs. Bottom-up


importance: way to investigate subjective nature of perception, way to study top-down and bottom-up, shows bias

Gestalt Principles

-organizing of perceptual system

-"the whole is greater than the sum of the parts"

-types: continuity, inclusiveness, proximity, similarity, closure

Perceptual Array

patterns of how you see, feel, hear life

Optic Flow

as you move, that pattern changes and develops


structure in the array of perceptual info that specifies the state of the world


relationship of self to the environment that enables action

ex: visual cliff example: relation of self to environment

body sized relationship, the moving room

Pattern Recognition Theory: Template Matching

-compare retina images to templates

-have stored templates for known objects

-closest match template is what object is

problems: different shaped objects, objects in different orientations, partial objects

Pattern Recognition Theory: Feature Analysis

Objects defined as: a set of features put together in an organization

-people see features of objects

Problems: more complex objects have features that are harder to identify

Pattern Recognition Theory: Structural Theory

-Various systems for noting components of objects

**simple volumes: boxes, tubes, cones

-combine volumes for objects

-Geons (Biederman): we see objects as combinations of volumes

-people recognize partial objects if gens are recognizable

Problems: Orientation does matter, patterns recognized by motion- no geons needed


lack of ability to recognize faces


lack of ability to visually recognize objects

Point light displays

Gunnar and Johansson

Recognition from motion

-people recognize objects by how they move

Selective Attention

information in --> but we can only focus on one thing

Cocktail party effect

that you can hear your name in a crowded room when you are not in that conversation

Dichotic Listening

play one thing in one ear and another thing in the other ear

-have participant focus on one sound


listening and repeating one of the tracks

-attended channel of info

**can follow but more difficult

Unattended channel

the one you're supposed to ignore

-you can't know much about it but you do get some of its messages


even if i attempt to I cannot bring it to attention

Early filter model of attention

Broadbent: tracking info done by physical features

attention selection then pattern recognition

Unattended info: nothing gets in unless it gets your attention

problems: incorrect, people don't follow the physical features they follow the semantic content (which is only supposed to come after attention)

Late filter model of attention

channels get pattern recognition then we do attention selection

all channels get pattern recognition and then you select a channel. other channels influence

-other info is rapidly lost

-impossible to reject

-importance of unconscious procession

Capacity model of attention

attention has a limited capacity

-can track one channel well, multiple channels not as well

arousal limits attention

practice makes task automatic

Change Blindness

attentional blink

difficulty noticing change in environment

ex: gray screen flicker paradigm

-second of two targets cannot be detected when it appears close to the first

ex: gradual change

Inattentional blindness

divided attention task in complex situation creates a failure to notice other things

divided: multiple sets of basketball player

focused: counting passes by one set

blindness: do not see umbrella lady

perceptual load

perception has limited capacity but operates in automated, involuntary manner on all info within its capacity

serial memory processing

attending to one thing at a time

parallel processing

attending and processing multiple items at one time

visual scanning

ability to find relevant information in our surroundings quickly and efficiently

Change blindness

difficulty noticing change in environment

flicker paradigm

illusion of awareness

Flicker paradigm

importance of gray screen

-re-writes the sensory store so you are recreating the scene overtime you see it

Capacity Theory

not aware of everything in environment

-inattentional blindness

-change blindness

-illusion of awareness

argues against late selection theory

-not all stimuli receive pattern recognition

Trainman's feature-integration theory

features registered early, automatically, and in parallel (all at once), while objects are identified separately and at a later stage in processing

sub-threshold perception



-subliminal: even if i attempt i cannot bring to attention