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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Experimenter Bias

data collection and/or analyses affected by knowledge of, or vested interest in, desired outcome


difference because more participants drop out ofone group than another


Condition in an experiment


Independent Variable

Post-test only design

subjects measured once, after the treatment(e.g., therapy and thenrating test); includes manipulation

Double-Blind Procedure

neither experimenter nor subject knows which treatment condition subject is in

Within-Subjects Designs

each subject receives every level of IV (at different times); compare each subject to oneself

External Validity

How well do the findings generalize beyond the research environment

Regression to the mean

extreme scores on an initial test become less extreme on a second test


other,extraneous variables operating with treatment; only those occurring once IV has begun and operating prior to assessment (DV)

Participant Bias

reacting differently than you would otherwise because you know that you are part of a study or believe you are receiving effective treatment

Single Factor Design

both between-subjects and within-subjects designs


difference due to participant aware of being measured/observed

Operational Definition

define variable or construct in terms of the operation(s) used to measure (or produce) it

Single-Blind Procedure

subject does not know the condition they are in; if you don’t know, it can’taffect your behavior


participants get older (in long-term/longitudinal studies)

Mundane Realism

how similar is the lab setting to real-world settings

Experimental Method

explicit (deliberate) manipulation of some variable (IV)


deliberate; eliminates “real world” confounds; and these so is strength not weakness

Dependent Variable

whatever the experimenter measures/records; value depends upon the level of the IV; usually plotted along the y-axis of a graph

Selection Bias

AKA selection effects; effects that are found are due to initial group differences (prior to study)

Confounding Variable/Confound

something else besides IV which systematically varies across groups

Cohort Effects/Generational Gap

not just different in terms of maturation but also born into a differentworld/historical variables which produces experiential differences

Complete counterbalancing

all possible sequences of conditions used equally often across subjects; counters progressive effects by balancing those effects equally across conditions

Construct Validity

Are the operational definitions valid?

Matched Group Design

special type of between-subjects design in which subjects equated (“matched”) on relevant variable prior to random assignment

Internal Validity

the IV (and nothing else) was responsible for differences/changes in the DV


how well research results reflect real-world processes

Ecological Validity/Setting Representativeness

how well does the research setting reproduce the “real world"

Subject/Participant Representativeness

subjects not randomly selected from population


getting tired/wearing out with the effect of decreasing accuracy or making reaction times longer (doing worse) in the second condition

Independent Variable

whatever the experimenter manipulates; must have at least 2 levels; suspected cause of some psychological phenomenon


what experimenter holds constant (not allowed to vary) or equates across conditions

Non-experimental/ Descriptive/ Observational Method

no explicit manipulation of a variable; correlational not causal

Sequence/Order Effects

experiencing one condition in a study affects performance in a subsequent condition; occurs in within-subjects designs


repeated measurement causes observed change in performance

Pretest-Post Test Design

Pre-post test Design

Before-After Design

subjects measured before and after the treatment(e.g., rating test, therapy, and a second rating test); includes manipulation and comparison

Between Subjects Design

each subject receives only one level of IV; compare groups of subjects


post-test only design and pretest-post test (pre-post/before-after)

Minimum Number of Levels Needed for an IV