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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
the processing of information into the memory system- for example by extracting meaning.
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
long- term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. includes knowledge, skills and experiences.
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yeild better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with
semantic encoding
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture- image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
the loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
a memory measure that asseses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that "ive experienced this before" cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistant with one's current good or bad mood.
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings and memories.