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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of mental processes and behavior
mental process
what the brain does when a person stores, recalls, or uses information or has specific feelings
the outwardly observable acts of an individual, alone or in a group
level of the brain
events that involve the structure and properties of the organ itself -- brain cells and their connections, the chemical soup in which they exist, and the genes
level of the person
events that involve the nature of beliefs, desires, and feelings -- the content of the mind, not just its internal mechanics
level of the group
events that involve relationships between people (love), relationships among groups, and culture.
the school of psychology that sought to identify the basic elements of experience and to describe the rules and circumstances under which these elements combine to form mental structures
the process of "looking within"
the school of psychology that sought to understand how the mind helps individuals function, or adapt to the world
gestalt psychology
an approach to understanding mental processes that focuses on the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts
outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought to a consciousness at will
psycho dynamic theory
a theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior.

Refers to the continual push and pull interaction among conscious and unconscious forces
the school of psychology that focuses on how a specific stimulus(object, person, or event) evokes a specific response
humanistic psychology
the school of psychology that assumes people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity, the combination of which leads them to choose life fulfilling paths to personal growth
cognitive psychology
the approach in psychology that attempts to characterize how information is stored and operated on internally
evolutionary psychology
the approach in psychology that assumes that certain cognitive strategies and goals are so important that natural selection has built them into our brains
clinical psychologist
the type of psychologist who provides psychotherapy and is trained to administer and interpret psychological tests
counseling psychologist
the type of psychologist who is trained to help people with issues that naturally arise during the course of life
developmental psychologist
researches and teaches the development of mental processes and behavior with age and experience
cognitive psychologist
researches and teaches the nature of thinking, memory, and related aspects of mental processes
social psychologist
researches and teaches how people think and feel about themselves and other people, and how groups function
personality psychologist
researches and teaches individual differences in preferences and inclinations
physiological psychologist
researches and teaches the nature of the brain and brain/body interactions
scientific method
involves specifying a problem,
systematically observing events,
forming a hypothesis of the relation between variables,
collecting new observations to test the hypothesis,
using such evidence to formulate and support a theory,
and finally testing the theory
collecting the same observations or measurements and finding the same results as were found previously
a tentative idea that might explain a set of observations
operational definition
a definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated
an interlocking set of concepts or principles that explain a set of observations
case study
a scientific study that focuses on a single instance of a situation, examining it in detail
a set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities
correlation coefficient
an index of how closely interrelated two sets of measured variables are, which ranges from -1.0 to 1.0

the higher the correlation, the better we can predict the value of one type of measurement when given the value of the other
independent variable
the aspect of the situation that is intentionally varied while another aspect is measured
dependent variable
the aspect of the situation that is measured as an independent variable is changed, the value of the dependent variable depends on the independent variable
an independent variable that varies along with the ones of interest, and could be the actual basis for what you are measuring
experimental group
a group that receives the complete procedure that defines the experiment
control group
a group that is treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that the one aspect of the situation being studied is not manipulated for this group.
random assignment
the technique of assigning participants randomly, that is, by chance, to the experimental and the control groups, so that no biases can sneak into the composition of the groups
a statistical technique that allows researches to combine results from different studies, which can determine whether there is a relationship among variables that transcends any one study
a group that is drawn from a larger population and measured or observed
the entire set of relevant people or animals
naturalistic observation
observed events are carefully documented
when beliefs, expectations, or habits alter how participants in a study respond or affect how a researcher sets up or conducts a study, thereby influencing its outcome
response bias
a tendency to respond in a particular way regardless of respondents' actual knowledge or beliefs
sampling bias
a bias that occurs when the participants or items are not chosen at random, but instead are chosen so that one attribute is over or underrepresented
double-blind design
the participant is "blind" to the predictions of the study, and the experimenter is "blind" to the condition assigned to the participant
informed consent
the requirement that a potential participant in a study be told what he or she will be asked to do and be advised of possible risks and benefits of the study before agreeing to take part
an interview after a study to ensure that the participant has no negative reactions as a result of participation and understands why the study was conducted