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46 Cards in this Set

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Psychology
The science of behavior and mental process. Requires a lot of critical thinking.
Wilhelm Wundt
Established the first scientific lab dedicated to the study of Psychology in 1879 (this marked its transition from a philosophy to a science). Also founded Structuralism.
Edward Titchener
Assistant of Wundt. Co-founder of Structuralism. Brought psychology to the U.S.
Structuralism
The school of psychology that attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its component parts. Uses the concept of introspection. Founded by Wundt and Titchener.
Introspection
Inward focusing on mental experiences, such as sensations or feelings. Ex: giving the subject a piece of fruit and asking them what impressions they may have in terms of its shape, color, texture or smell. This helps break down mental experiences into sensations, perceptions and feelings
William James
Founded Functionalism. He did not believe that conscious experience could be parceled into discrete elements. Rather, he believed that mental experience is best understood in terms of the functions or purposes it serves.
Functionalism
The school of psychology that attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its component parts. Founded by William James.
John Watson
Founder of Behaviorism. He believed that the environment molds the behavior of humans and other animals.
Behaviorism
The school of psychology that holds that psychology should limit itself of overt, observable behavior.
B.F. Skinner
Believed that all behavior is based on the concept of rewards and punishments. Applied this to dogs, telling them to sit.
Max Wertheimer
Founder of Gestalt psychology. Was fasinated by the illusion of movement by objects in the distance.
Gestalt Psychology
The school of psychology that holds that the brain structures our perceptions of the world in terms of meaningful patterns or wholes.
Sigmund Freud
Founded Psychodynamic Perspective and Psychoanalysis. Wanted to learn about the unconscious mind.
Psychodynamic Perspective
The view that behavior is influenced by the struggle between unconscious sexual or aggressive impluses and opposing forces that try to keep this threatening material out of consciousness.
Psychoanalysis
Freud's method of psychotherapy; it focuses on uncovering and working through unconscious conflicts he believed were at the root of psychological problems.
Behavioral Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses in the role of learning in explaining observable behavior.
Social-cognitive Theory
A contemporary learning-based model that emphasizes the roles of cognitive and environmental factors in determining behavior.
Behavior Theory
A form of therapy that involves the systematic application of the principles of learning.
Humanistic Psychology
The school of psychology that believes that free will and conscious choice are essential aspects of the human experience.
Physiological Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the relationships between biological processes and behavior.
Evolutionary Psychology
A branch of psychology that focuses on the role of evolutionary processes in shaping behavior.
Cognitive Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the processes by which we acquire knowledge.
Sociocultural Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that emphasizes the role of social and cultural influences on behavior.
Basic Research
Research focused on acquiring knowledge even if such knowledge has no direct practical application.
Applied Research
Research that attempts to find solutions on specific problems.
What are the general steps of the scientific method?
1. Develop a research question
2. Forming a Hypothesis
3. Gathering evidence
4. Drawing conclusions
Case Study Method
In-depth study of one or more individuals. Info is drawn from interviews, observation or written reports. (Problems) Limitations of memory, Withholding of important info, concerns over making favorable impressions.
Survey Method
Info gathered through target groups of people through the use of structured interview or questionnaires. Important to keep sampling random. (Problems) Limitations of memory, social desirability bias, volunteer bias.
Naturalistic Observation
Direct observation of behavior in natural environment. (Problems) May behave differently when aware of being observed, potential observer bias.
Correlation Method
A research method used to examine relationships between variables, which are expressed in the form of a statistical measure called correlation coefficient.
Experimental Method
(The Best) A method if scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions.
Independent Variable
Factors used in an experiment. One for control and one for experimental.
Dependent Variable
The effects or outcomes of an experiment that are believed to be dependent on the values of the independent variable.
Extraneous Variable
Any variable other than the IV that could potentially influence the DV
Confounding Variables
Two variables that are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out specific effects.
Problems for the Experimental Process
Placebo Effects - The positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from a participant's positive expectations about the treatment rather than from the treatment itself.
Controlling for expectancy effects
What puts us at the top of the food chain?
Brain, Frontal Lobes. The human brain is a product of generations of adaptive mutations and adaptations. A product of natural selection.
Natural Selection
The process by which inherited traits that lead to a selective advantage increase the likelihood of reproduction.
Cephalisation Index
K=E/P

K: Cephalisation Index
E: Brain Weight in grams
P: Body Weight in kilograms
Neurons
Nerve cells. The basic building block of the nervous system. Transmit info via an electro-chemical process
Organization of Nervous System
Nervous System
Central Nervous System (Spinal Cord, Brain)
Peripheal Nervous System (Somatic Nervous System, Automatic Nervous System (Sympathetic, Parasympathetic))
Dendrite
Rootlike structures at the end of the axons that receive neural impulses from neighboring neurons.
Soma
The cell body of a neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell and carries out the cell's metabolic functions.
Axon
The tubelike part of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body toward other neurons.
Terminal Buttons
Swellings at the tips of axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse. Transfers electrical info to chemical info.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that transmit info from the sensory organs, muscles and inner organs to the spinal cord and brain.
Also called afferent nerves.